Methods for the Implantation of Liver Cells

  • Stephen S. Kim
  • Hirofumi Utsunomiya
  • Joseph P. Vacanti
Part of the Methods in Molecular Medicine™ book series (MIMM, volume 18)


There have been many major advances in the field of liver transplantation in the past 30 yr. Orthotopic liver transplantation is currently the only established successful treatment for end-stage liver disease, with over 3000 liver transplantations being performed each year in more than 120 liver transplantation centers in the United States (1). There are several major challenges, however, that impede the widespread practice and applicability of organ transplantation. These include the critical shortage of donor organs, the high cost and technical difficulty of the procedures, and the intensive postoperative care involved, including those associated with life-long immunosuppression. Among these obstacles, the critical scarcity of donor organs, especially in the pediatric population, is perhaps the most significant. Each year, end-stage liver disease accounts for 26,000 deaths in the United States (2). Although the supply of donor organs has increased only slightly over the last 5 yr, the number of patients on the waiting list and the number of patients who die each year while on the waiting list have continued to grow at a disproportionate rate (1).


Inferior Vena Cava Donor Organ Portal Venous System Polymer Scaffold Splenic Vessel 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen S. Kim
    • 1
  • Hirofumi Utsunomiya
    • 1
  • Joseph P. Vacanti
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Transplantation and Tissue EngineeringChildren’s HospitalBoston

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