Visualization of Cell Replication Using Antibody to Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the 37-kDa molecular weight auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase δ (1). PCNA is a very conserved and highly regulated protein necessary for cell cycle progression. PCNA is associated with cyclin A in both soluble and insoluble fractions, whereas it is associated with cyclin D1 only in the soluble fraction (2). PCNA translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the beginning of S-phase, is required for entry into S-phase, and forms multiple high molecular weight complexes with cdk2 at late G1 or early S-phase (2). This cell-cycle distribution of PCNA may be employed as a marker of DNA replication.
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