Advertisement

Applications of Lectin Histochemistry and Cytochemistry in Diagnosis and Prognosis

  • Timothy Richard Helliwell
Part of the Methods in Molecular Medicine™ book series (MIMM, volume 9)

Abstract

The purpose of diagnostic histopathology and cytology is to categorize a disease process and predict how that disease will affect the patient. Pathologists are now combining careful morphological evaluation of the structure of the cell nucleus and cytoplasm with immunohistochemical and lectin histochemical studies to explore the molecular pathophysiology of diseased tissues and provide additional information to determine treatment and prognosis Many of the antibodies used in diagnostic tumor pathology recognize epitopes that include carbohydrate sequences, e.g., α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, CA125, which may also be identified by lectins Cancer-associated oligosaccharides are often oncodevelopmental in nature and reflect changes seen during normal development (1,2). Where as immunohistochemical studies often provide diagnostic information, previous reviews suggest that lectin histochemical data are rarely pathognomonic (3,4). This chapter will summarize more recent data, providing references to recent papers or review articles as an entry to the extensive literature. The lectins quoted, their abbreviations, and nominal specificities are shown in Table 1.

Keywords

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Lectin Binding Lectin Histochemistry Endogenous Lectin Lectin Binding Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Sell, S. (1990) Cancer-associated carbohydrates identified by monoclonal antibodies Hum Pathol 21, 1003–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hakomori, S.-I. (1991) Possible functions of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. Curr Opin Immunol 3, 646–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caselitz, J (1987) Lectins and blood group substances as “tumor markers.” Curr Top Pathol. 77, 245–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Walker, R A. (1989) The use of lectins in histopathology Path Res Pract 185, 826–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kayser, K, Bovin, N V, Korchagina, E Y., Zeilinger, C, Zeng, F-Y., and Gabius, H J (1994) Correlation of expression of binding sites for synthetic blood group A-, B-and H-trisaccharides and for sarcolectin with survival of patients with bronchial carcinoma Eur J Cancer 30, 653–457Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rittman, B R and MacKenzie, I C (1983) Effects of histological processing on lectin binding patterns in oral mucosa and skin Histochem J 15, 467–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alroy, J, De Gasperi, R, and Warren, C. D (1991) Application of lectin histochemistry and carbohydrate analysis to the characterization of lysosomal storage diseases Carbohydr Res 213, 229–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McMahon, R F T, Panesar, M J R, and Stoddart, R W (1994) Glycocomugates of the normal human colorectum a lectin histochemical study Histochem J 26, 504–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brooks, S A., Leathem, A J. C, Camplejohn, R S, and Gregory, W (1993) Markers of prognoses in breast cancer—the relationship between binding of the lectin HPA and histological grade, SPF, and ploidy Breast Cancer Res Treat 25, 247–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Walker, R A (1984) The binding of peroxidase-labelled lectins to human breast epithelium 3. altered fucose-binding patterns of breast carcinomas and then significance. J Pathol 144, 109–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saku, T and Okabe, H (1989) Differential lectin-bindings in normal and pre-cancerous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa J Oral Pathol. Med 18, 438–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alroy, J, Goyal, V, and Skutelsky, E (1987) Lectin histochemistry of mammalian endothelium Histochemistry 86, 603–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Laitmen, L. (1987) Griffonia simplicifolia lectins bind specifically to endothelial cells and some epithelial cells in mouse tissues Histochem J 19, 225–234Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ordóñez, N G, Brooks, T, Thompson, S, and Batsakis, J G (1987) Use of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I in the identification of lymphatic and blood vessel invasion in previously stained microscopic slides Am J Surg Pathol 11, 543–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Emslie-Smith, A. M. and Engel, A. G. (1990) Microvascular changes in early and advanced dermatomyositis: a quantitative study Ann Neurol 27, 343–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ordóñez, N G and Batsakts, J G (1984) Comparison of Ulex europaeus I lectin and factor VIII-related antigen in vascular lesions Arch Pathol Lab Med 108, 129–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hitchcock, M G, Hurt, M A, and Santa-Cruz, D J (1994) Cutaneous granular cell angiosarcoma J Cutan Pathol 21, 256–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leader, M, Collins, M, Patel, J, and Henry, K (1986) Staining for factor VIII-related antigen and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) in 230 tumours An assessment of their specificity for angiosarcoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma Histopathology 10, 1153–1162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sirgi, K E, Wick, M R., and Swanson, P E (1993) B72.3 and CD34 immunoreactivity in malignant epithelioid soft tissue tumors. adjuncts in the recognition of endothelial neoplasms Am J Surg Pathol 17, 179–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kuzu, I, Bicknell, R, Harris, A. L, Jones, M, Gatter, K C, and Mason, D. Y Heterogeneity of vascular endothelial cells with relevance to diagnosis of vascular tumours J Clin Pathol 45, 143–148.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wenig B.M, Abbondanzo, S. L., and Heffess, C. S (1994)Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the adrenal glands: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases with a discussion of the implications of finding “epithellal-specific” markers Am J Surg Pathol 18, 62–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gray, M H, Rosenberg, A. E, Dickersin, G R, and Bhan, A K (1990) Cyiokeratin expression in epithelioid vascular neoplasms. Hum Pathol 21, 212–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Herron, G S, Rouse, R V, Kosek, J. C., Sinoller, B R, and Egbert, B M (1994) Benign lymphangioendothelioma J Am Acad. Dermatol 31, 362–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Virtanen, I, Kariniemi, A-L, Holthofer, H, and Lehto, V-P. (1986) Fluoro-chrome-coupled lectins reveal distinct cellular domains in human epidermis J Histochem Cytochem 34, 307–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kariniemi, A-L and Virtanen, I (1989) Dohchos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) reveals a similar basal cell differentiation in normal and psoriatic epidermis Hitochemistry 93, 129–132Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Louis, C J, Wyllie, R G, Chou, S T, and Sztynda, T (1981) Lectin-binding affinities of human epidermal tumors and related conditions Am J. Clin Pathol 75, 642–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tsubura, A, Fujita, Y, Sasaki, M, and Morn, S (1992) Lectin-binding profiles for normal skin appendages and their tumors J Cutan Pathol 19, 483–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kannon, G and Park, H K (1990) Utility of peanut agglutinin (PNA) in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma Am J Dermato-pathol 12, 31–36Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kohchiyama, A., Oka, D., and Ueki, H. (1987) Differing lectin-binding patterns of malignant melanoma and nevocellular and Spitz nevi Arch Dermatol Res 279, 226–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dabelsteen, E and Mackenzie, I C (1978) Expression of Ricinus communis receptors on epithelial cells in oral carcinomas and oral wounds. Cancer Res. 38, 4676–4680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tolson, N. D., Daley, T D, and Wysocki, G. P (1985) Lectin probes of glycoconjugates in human salivary glands. 1 J Oral Pathol. 14, 523–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Daley, T. D, Tolson, N D, and Wysocki, G P (1985) Lectin probes of glycoconjugates in human salivary gland neoplasms: 2 J Oral Pathol 14, 531–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Macartney, J. C. (1986) Lectin histochemistry of galactose and N-acetyl-galac-tosomine glycoconugates in normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer and the relationship with ABO and secretor status. J Pathol 150, 135–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Macartney, J. C. (1987) Fucose-containing antigens in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa a comparative study using lectin histochemistry and blood group immunohistochemistry. J Pathol 152, 23–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Narita, T and Numao, H (1992) Lectin binding patterns in normal, metaplastic and neoplastic gastric mucosa. J Histochem Cytochem 40, 681–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kakeji, Y., Tsujitani, S, Mori, M, Maehara, Y, and Sugimachi, K (1991) Helix pomatia agglutinin binding activity is a predictor of survival time for patients with gastric carcinoma Cancer 68, 2438–2442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lotan, R, Ito, H, Yasui, W, Yokozaki, H, Lotan, D, and Tahara, E (1994) Expression of a 31-kDa lactoside-binding lectin in normal human gastric mucosa and in primary and metastatic gastric carcinomas Int. J Cancer 56, 474–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vecchi, M, Torgano, G, De Franchis, R, Tronconi, S, Agape, D., and Ronchi, G (1989) Evidence of altered structural and secretory glycoconjugates in the Jejunal mucosa of patients with gluten sensitive enteropathy and subtotal villous atrophy Gut 30, 804–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Thiru, S., Devereux, G, and King, A (1990) Abnormal fucosylation of ideal mucus in cystic fibrosis 1 A histochemical study using peroxidase labelled lectins J Clin Pathol 43, 1014–1018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bresalier, R S, Boland, C R, and Kim, Y. S (1985) Regional differences in normal and cancer-associated glycoconjugates of the human colon J Nat Cancer Inst 75, 249–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cooper, H S, Farano, P, and Coapman, R A (1987) Peanut lectin binding sites in colons of patients with ulcerative colitis Arch Pathol Lab Med 111, 270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Compton, C C (1989) Piemalignancy in chronic ulcerative colitis Hum Pathol 20, 407–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    O’Brien, M J, O’Keane, J. C, Zauber, A., Gottlieb, L S, and Winawer, S J (1992) Precursors of colorectal carcinoma Cancer 70, 1317–1327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Boland, R C and Deshmukh, G D (1990) The carbohydrate composition of mucin in colonic cancer Gastroenterol 98, 1170–1177Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Itzkowttz, S H, Yuan, M, Montgomery, C K., Kjeldsen, T, Takahashi, H. K., Bigbee, W. L, and Kim, Y S. (1989) Expression of Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T antigens in human colon cancer Cancer Res 49, 197–204Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ikeda, Y, Mori, M, Adachi, Y, Matsushima, T, and Sugimachi, K (1994) Prognostic value of the histochemical expression of Helix pomatia agglutinin in advanced colorectal cancer Dis Colon Rectum 37, 181–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sams, J. S, Lynch, H T, Burt, R W, Lanspa, S J, and Boland, C R (1990) Abnormalities of lectin histochemistry in familial polyposis coli and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer Cancer 68, 502–508Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Irimura, T, Matsushita, Y, Sutton, R C, Carralero, D, Ohannesian, D W, Cleary, K R, Ota, D M, Nicolson, G L., and Lotan, R. (1991) Increased content of an endogenous lactose-binding lectin in human colorectal carcinoma progressed to metastatic stages Cancer Res 51, 387–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ching, C K, Black, R, Helliwell, T, Savage, A, Barr, H., and Rhodes, J M (1988) Use of lectin histochemistry in pancreatic cancer. J Clin Pathol 41, 324–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dhillon A P., Colombari, R, Savage, K, and Scheuer, P J. (1992) An immuno-histochemical study of the blood vessels within primary hepatocellular tumours Liver 12, 311–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gulisano, M., Bryk, S G, Gheri, G, Sgambati, E., Curreh, A., Masala, W., and Pacini, P (1994) Histochemical study of human nasopharyngeal epithelium by horseradish peroxidase conjugated lectins Epith Cell Biol 3, 1–6Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Femmesser, R, Freeman, J L, Noyek, A., and van Nostrand, P (1989) Lectin binding characteristics of laryngeal cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 100, 207–209Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Alvarez-Fernandez, E. and Carretero-Albmana, L. (1990) Lectin histochemistry of normal bronchopulmonary tissues and common forms of bronchogenic carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 114, 475–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kawai, T., Greenberg, S. D, Truong, L D, Mattioli, C. A, Klima, M, and Titus, J L (1988) Differences in lectin binding of malignant pleural mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Am J Pathol 130, 401–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shield, P W (1989) Lectin binding properties of cells from serous effusion and peritoneal washing specimens J Clin Pathol 42, 1178–1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lee, J S, Ro, J. Y, Sahin, A S, Hong, W. K, Brown, B W, Mountain, C F, and Hittelman, W. N (1991) Expression of blood-group antigen A—a favorable prognostic factor in non-small-cell lung cancer N Engl J Med 324, 1084–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Matsumoto, H, Muramatsu, H., Muramatsu, T., and Shimazu, H (1992) Carbohydrate profiles shown by a lectin and a monoclonal antibody correlate with metastatic potential and prognosis of human lung carcinomas. Cancer 69, 2084–2090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Meyer, K. C., Powers, C, Rosenthal, N, and Auerbach, R (1993) Alveolar macrophage surface carbohydrate expression is altered in interstitial lung disease as determined by lectin-binding profiles. Am Rev Respir Dis 148, 1325–1334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kayser, K., Heil, M., and Gabius, H J. (1989) Is the profile of binding of a panel of neoglycoproteins useful as a diagnostic marker in human lung cancer? Path Res Pract 184, 621–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Silva, F G, Nadasdy, T, and Laszik, Z (1993) Immunohistochemical and lectin dissection of the human nephron in health and disease Arch Pathol Lab Med 117, 1233–1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ivanyi, B, Hansen, H. E, and Olsen, S (1993) Segmental localization and quantitative characteristics of tubulitis in kidney biopsies from patients undergoing acute rejection Transplantation 56, 581–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nadasdy, T., Laszik, Z, Blick, K. E., Johnson, D. L, and Silva, F. D. (1994) Tubular atrophy in the end-stage kidney: a lectin and immunohistochemical study. Hum. Pathol 25, 22–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kumar, S, Carr, T, Marsden, H B, and Morris-Jones, P. H (1986) Study of childhood renal tumours using peroxidase conjugated lectins. J Clin Pathol 39, 736–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yeger, H, Baumal, R, Harason, P, and Phillips, M. J (1987) Lectin histochemistry of Wilms’ tumor comparison with normal adult and fetal kidney Am J Clin Pathlo 88, 278–285Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Holthofer, H, Virtanen, I, Pettersson, E., Tornroth, T, Alfthan, O, Linder, E., and Miettinen, A. (1981) Lectins as fluorescence microscopic markers for saccharides in the human kidney Lab. Invest 45, 391–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Yonezawa, S, Irisa, S, Nakamura, T, Uemura, S, Otsuji, Y, Ohi, Y, and Sato, E (1983) Deposition of α1-antitrypsin and loss of glycoconjugate carrying Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding sites in the glomerular sclerotic process Nephron 33, 38–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nevins, T E (1985) Lectin binding in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis evidence for N-acetylglucosamme in dense intramembranous deposits Am J Pathol 118, 325–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nakamshi, K, Kawai, T, and Suzuki, M. (1993) Lectin binding and expression of blood group-related antigens in carcinoma in-situ and invasive carcinoma of urinary bladder Histopathology 23, 153–158Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Langkilde, N C, Wolf, H., and Orntoft, T F (1989) Lectin histochemistry of human bladder cancer loss of lectin binding structures in invasive carcinomas (1989) APMis 97, 367–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Limas, C, and Lange, P (1986) T-antigen in normal and neoplastic urothelium Cancer 58, 1236–1245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gabius, H J, Bahn, H, Holzhausen, H J, Knolle, J., and Stiller, D. (1992) Neoglycoprotein binding to normal urothelium and grade-dependent changes in bladder lesions Anticancer Res 12, 987–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    McNeal, J. E, Leav, I, Alroy, J, and Skutelsky, E (1988) Differential lectin staining of central and peripheral zones of the prostate and alterations in dysplasia Am J Clin Pathol 89, 41–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Foster, C S, McLoughlin, J, Bashir, I, and Abel, P D (1992) Markers of the metastatic phenotype in prostate cancer Hum Pathol 23, 381–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Allsbrook, W C and Simms, W. W (1992) Histochemistry of the prostate Hum Pathol 23, 297–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lee, M. C and Damjanov, I (1984) Lectin histochemistry of human placenta Differentiation 28, 123–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bychkov, V and Toto, P. D. (1986) Lectin binding to normal, dysplastic, and neoplastic cervical epithelium. Am J Clin Pathol 85, 542–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hirao, T, Sakamoto, Y, Kamada, M, Hamada, S I, and Aono, T. (1993) Tn antigen, a marker of potential for metastasis of uterine cervix cancer cells Cancer 72, 154–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pillai, K. R, Remani, P, Kannan, S, Mathew, A, Sujaihan, K, Vijayakumar, T, and Nair, M K (1994) Jack fruit lectin-specific glycoconjugate expression during the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia a study of exfoliated cells Diagn Cytopathol 10, 342–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Griffin, N. R. and Wells, M (1994) Characterisation of complex carbohydrates in cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive adenocarcinoma Int J Gynaecol Pathol 13, 319–329Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kluskens, L. F., Kluskens, J L, and Bibbo, M (1984) Lectin binding in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 82, 259–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    West, K P and Cope, J. L. (1989) The binding of peroxidase-labelled lectins to human endometrium in normal cyclical endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinoma. J Clin Pathol 42, 140–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ashorn, P, Helle, M, Helm, H, Ashorn, R., and Krohn, K (1988) Use of immunohistochemical staining panel for characterisation of ovarian neoplasms J Clin Pathol 41, 12–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fenlon, S, Ellis, I O, Bell, J, Todd, J H, Elston, C. W, and Blamey, R W (1987) Helix pomatia and Ulex europeus lectin binding in human breast carcinoma J Pathol 152, 169–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gabius, H J, Bodanowitz, S, and Schauer, A (1988) Endogenous sugar-binding proteins in human breast tissue and benign and malignant breast lesions Cancer 61, 1125–1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kosmehl, H., Langbem, L, and Katenkamp, D (1989) Lectin histochemistry of human testicular germ cell tumours. Neoplasma 36, 29–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Moorghen, M and Carpenter, F (1991) Peanut lectin: a histochemical marker for phaeochromocytomas Virchows Archiv A Pathol Anat. 419, 203–207Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sasano, H., Nose, M, and Sasano, N (1989) Lectin histochemistry in adrenocortical hyperplasia and neoplasms with emphasis on carcinoma Arch Pathol Lab Med 113, 68–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gonzalez-Campora, R., Gallego, F. S., Lacave, I M., Mann, J M, Linares, C M, and Galera-Davidson, H (1988) Lectin histochemistry of the thyroid gland Cancer 62, 2354–2362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Martin-Lacave, I, Gonzalez-Campora, R, Fernandez, A M., Gallego, F S, Montero, C., and Galera-Davidson, H (1988) Mucosubstances in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid Histopathology 13, 55,56Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Soderstrom, K O. (1987) Lectin binding to collagen strands in histologic tissue sections Histochemistry 87, 557–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ueda, T., Aozasa, K, Yamamura, T., Tsujimoto, J, Ono, K, and Matsumoto, K (1987) Lectin histochemistry of malignant fibrohistiocytic tumors Am J Surg. Pathol 11, 257–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Helliwell, T. R., Gunhan, O., and Edwards, R H T (1989) Lectin binding and desmin expression during necrosis, regeneration and neurogenic atrophy of human skeletal muscle J Pathol 159, 43–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Capaldi, M. J, Dunn, M J, Sewry, C A, and Dubowitz, V (1984) Altered binding of Ricinus commuis 1 lectin by muscle membranes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy J Neural Sci. 63, 129–142.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Campbell, K. P. and Kahl, S. D. (1989) Association of dystrophin and an Integral membrane glycoprotein Nature 338, 259–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Saku, T, Shibata, Y., Koyama, Z, Cheng, J, Okabe, H, and Yeh, Y (1991) Lectin histochemistry of cystic Jaw lesions. an aid for differential diagnosis between cystic ameloblastoma and odontogenic cysts J Oral Pathol Med 20, 108–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kaneko, Y., Iwaki, T., and Fukui, M. (1992) Lectin histochemistry of human fetal notochord, ecchordosis physaliphora, and chordomas Arch Pathol Lab Med. 116, 60–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schumacher, U, Horny, H. P., Welsch, U., and Kaiserling, E (1991) Lectin histochemistry of human bone marrow: investigation of trephine biopsy specimens in normal and reactive states and neoplastic disorders Histochem J 23, 215–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Howard, D R. and Batsakis, J G (1980) Peanut agglutinin. a new marker for tissue histiocytes Am J Clin. Pathol 77, 401–408Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Paulli. M., Rosso, R, Kindl, S, Boveri, E., Marocolo, D, Chioda, C., Agostini, C, Magrini, U, and Facchetti, F (1992) Immunophenotypic characterization of the cell infiltrate in five cases of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) Hum Pathol 23, 641–654.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ree, H J and Kadin, M E (1986) Peanut agglutin a useful marker for histiocytosis X and intradigitating reticulum cells Cancer 57, 282–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ree, H J, Neiman, R S, Mortin, A W, Dallenbach, F, and Stein, H (1989) Paraffin section markers for Reed-Steinberg cells Cancer 63, 203–2036Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sarker, A B, Akagi, T, Jeon, H J, Miyake, K, Murakami, I, Yoshino, T, Takahashi, K., and Nose, S (1992) Bauhinia purpurea—a new paraffin section marker for Reed-Steinberg cells of Hodgkin’s disease. Am J Pathol 141, 19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kirkpatrick, C J, Jones, C J. P., and Stoddart, R. W. (1988) Lectin histochemistry of the mast cell a light microscopical study Histochem J 20, 139–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Helltwell, T R, Gunhan, O, and Edwards, R. H T (1990) Mast cells in neuromuscular diseases J Neurol Sci, 98, 267–276Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mannoji, H, Yeger, H, and Becker, L E (1986) A specific histochemical marker (lectin Ricinus communis agglutinin-1) for normal human microglia, and application to routine histopathology Acta Neuropathol 71, 341–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Figols, J, Madrid, J F, and Cervos-Navarro, J (1991) Lectins as differentiation markers of human gliomas Histol Histopath 6, 79–85.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Marafioti, T, Barresi, G, and Batolo, D (1994) Lectin histochemistry of human meningiomas Histol Histopath 9, 535–540Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Estruch, R and Damjanov, I. (1986) Lectin histochemistry applied to human nerves Arch Pathol Lab Med 110, 730–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Karayannopoulou, G, Weiss, J, and Damjanov, I (1988) Detection of fungi in tissue sections by lectin histochemistry. Arch Pathol Lab Med 112, 746–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Senba, M. (1989) Lectin histochemistry of fungi Arch Pathol Lab Med 113, 327,328Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Stoddart, R W and Herbertson, B M. (1978) The use of fluorescein-labelled lectins in the detection and identification of fungi pathogenic for man a preliminary study. J Med Microbiol 11, 315–324PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy Richard Helliwell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of LiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations