RAPD-PCR with Parasitic Hymenoptera

  • Richard L. Roehrdanx
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 50)


The parasitic Hymenoptera represent a group of insects that is both taxonomically and biologically poorly defined, despite the fact that members of the group are the premier agents in successful programs for the biological control of phytophagous insect pests. The vast majority of Hymenoptera utilize a parasitic lifestyle. Most Hymenoptera families contain parasitoid species, but some of the same families also include nonparasitoids. Although more than 100,000 species of Hymenoptera have been described, it has been estimated that more than 75% of the parasitic species have not been identified (1,2). Contributing factors to this lack of knowledge of parasitic Hymenoptera species are their diminutive size and their relative rarity under most conditions. The insects generally are slender with individuals of many species less than 5 mm long. At least one species of Trichogrammatid has an adult size of about 0.2 mm, which could be the world’s smallest insect (2). Parasitic Hymenoptera have the capability to respond quickly to an outbreak of their phytophagous hosts, however, under stable equilibrium conditions the population density of the parasites may be very low (1).


RAPD Marker Isoamyl Alcohol Parasitoid Species Microfuge Tube Chloroform Isoamyl Alcohol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    LaSalle, J. (1993) Parasitic Hymenoptera, biological control and biodiversity, in Hymenoptera and Biodiversity (LaSalle, J. and Gauld, I. D., eds.), CAB International, Wallinford, UK, pp. 197–215.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    LaSalle, J. and Gauld, I. D. (1993) Hymenoptera, their diversity, and their impact on the diversity of other organisms, in Hymenoptera and Biodiversity (LaSalle, J. and Gauld, I. D., eds.), CAB International, Wallinford, UK, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Unruh, T. R. and Messing, R. H. (1993) Intraspecific biodiversity in Hymenoptera, implications for conservation and biological control, in Hymenoptera and Biodiversity (LaSalle, J. and Gauld, I. D., eds.), CAB International, Wallinford, UK, pp. 27–52.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Black, W. C., IV, DuTeau, N. M., Puterka, G. J., Nechols, J. R., and Pettorini, J. M. (1992) Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA polykerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) to detect DNA polymorphisms in aphids. Bull. Entomol. Res. 82, 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Landry, B. S., Dextraze, L., and Boivin, G. (1993) Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers for DNA fingerprinting and genetic variability assessment of minute parasite wasp species (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) used in biological control programs of phytopahgous insects. Genome 36, 580–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roehrdanz, R. L., Reed, D. K., and Burton, R. L. (1993) Use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and arbitrary primers to distinguish laboratory raised colonies of parasitic hymenoptera. Biol. Cont. 3, 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Black, W. C., IV (1993) PCR with arbitrary primers: approach with care. Insect Mol. Biol. 2, 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ellsworth, D. L., Rittenhouse, K. D., and Honeycutt, R. L. (1993) Artifactual variation in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA banding patterns. Biotechniques 14, 214–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boyce, T. M., Schick, M. E., and Aquadro, C. F. (1989) Mitochondrial DNA in the pine weevil: size, structure and heteroplasmy. Genetics 123, 825–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Doyle, J. (1991) DNA protocols for plants, in Molecular Techniques in Taxonomy (Hewitt, G. M., Johnston, A. W. B., and Young, J. P. W., eds.), NATO Advanced Studies Institute, H57, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 329–355.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roehrdanz, R. L. and Flanders, R. V. (1993) Detection of DNA polymorphisms in predatory Coccinellids using polymerase chain reaction and arbitrary primers (RAPD-PCR). Entomophaga 38, 479–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu, K., and Pauls, K. P. (1992) Optimization of the PCR program for RAPD analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 2606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard L. Roehrdanx
    • 1
  1. 1.Biosciences Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research ServiceUS Department of AgricultureFargo

Personalised recommendations