Oligosaccharide Mapping and Sequence Analysis of Glycosaminoglycans

  • Jeremy E. Turnbull
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 19)

Abstract

A strategy for determining the structure of a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) can be divided into three areas. The first is to establish its saccharide composition. This requires complete depolymerization of the parent chains to disaccharide products that can be purified, separated, and identified either by comparison with reference standards or by further structural analysis (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

Keywords

Sugar HPLC Glycerol Heparin Electrophoresis 

References

  1. 1.
    Bienkowski, M. J. and Conrad, H. E. (1985) Structural characterization of the oligosaccharides formed by depolymerisation of heparin with nitrous acid. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 356–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guo, Y. and Conrad, H. E. (1989) The disaccharide composition of heparins and heparan sulphates. Anal. Biochem. 176, 96–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yoshida, K., Miyauchi, S., Kikuchi, H., Tawada, A., and Tokuyasu, K. (1989) Analysis of unsaturated disaccharides from glycosaminoglycans by HPLC. Anal. Biochem. 177, 327–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Edge, A. S. B. and Spiro, R. G. (1990) Characterization of novel sequences containing 3-O-sulphated glucosamine in glomerular basement membrane heparan sulphate and location of sulphated disaccharides in a peripheral domain. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 15,874–15,881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Turnbull, J. E. and Gallagher, J. T. (1990) Molecular organization of heparan sulphate from human skin fibroblasts. Biochem. J. 265, 715–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maimone, M. M. and Tollefsen, D. M. (1990) Structure of a dermatan sulphate hexasaccharide that binds to heparin cofactor II with high affinity. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 18,263–18,271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Turnbull, J. E. and Gallagher, J. T. (1988) Oligosaccharide mapping of heparan sulphate by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electro-transfer to nylon membrane. Biochem. J. 251, 597–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Turnbull, J. E. and Gallagher J. T. (1991) Distribution of iduronate-2-sulphate residues in heparan sulphate: evidence for an ordered polymeric structure. Biochem. J. 273, 553–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gallagher, J. T. and Walker, A. (1985) Molecular distinctions between heparan sulphate and heparin. Biochem. J. 230, 665–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dickenson, J. M., Morris, H. G., Nieduszynski, I. A., and Huckerby, T. N. (1990) Skeletal keratan sulphate chain molecular weight calibration by high-performance gel permeation chromatography. Anal Biochem. 190, 271–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rice, K. G., Kim, Y. S., Grant, A. C., Merchant, Z. M., and Linhardt, R. J. (1985) HPLC separation of heparin-derived oligosaccharides. Anal. Biochem. 150, 325–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Linhardt, R. J., Rice, K. G., Kim, Y. S., Lohse, D. L., Wang, H. M., and Loganathan, D. (1988) Mapping and quantification of the major oligosaccharide components of heparin. Biochem. J. 254, 781–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rice, K. G., Rottink, M. R., and Linhardt, R. J. (1987) Fractionation of heparin-derived oligosaccharides by gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biochem. J. 244, 515–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Hakim, A. and Linhardt, R. J. (1990) Isolation and recovery of acidic oligosaccharides from polyacrylamide gels by semi-dry electrotransfer. Electrophoresis 11, 23–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lyon, M. and Gallagher, J. T. (1990) A general method for the detection and mapping of submicrogram quantities of GAG oligosaccharides on polyacrylamide gels by sequential staining with Azure A and ammoniacal silver. Anal. Biochem. 185, 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fransson, L-A., Havsmark, B., and Silverberg, I. (1990) A method for the sequence analysis of dermatan sulphate. Biochem. J. 269, 381–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lyon, M., Steward, W. P., Hampson, I. N., and Gallagher, J. T. (1987) Identification of an extended N-acetylated sequence adjacent to the protein-linkage region of fibroblast heparan sulphate. Biochem. J. 242, 493–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rosenfeld, L. and Danishefsky, I. (1988) Location of specific oligosaccharides in heparin in terms of their distance from the protein linkage region in the native proteoglycan. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 262–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Turnbull, J. E. and Gallagher, J. T. (1991) Sequence analysis of heparan sulphate indicates defined location of N-sulphated glucosamine and iduronate-2-sulphate residues proximal to the protein linkage region. Biochem. J. 277, 297–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Uchiyama, H., Kikuchi, K., Ogamo, A., and Nagasawa, K. (1987) Determination of the distribution of constituent disaccharide units within the chain near the linkage region of shark cartilage chondroitin sulphate C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 926, 239–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shively, J. E. and Conrad, H. C. (1976) Formation of anhydrosugars in the chemical depolymerisation of heparin. Biochemistry 15, 3932–3942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fransson, L-A., Sjoberg, I., and Havsmark, B. (1980) Structural studies on heparan sulphate. Eur. J. Biochem. 106, 59–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Linhardt, R. J., Turnbull, J. E., Wang, H. M., Loganathan, D., and Gallagher, J. T. (1990) Examination of the substrate specificity of heparin and heparan sulphate lyases. Biochemistry 29, 2611–2617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Heinegard, D. and Sommarin, Y. (1987) Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans, in Methods in Enzymology, vol. 144 (Cunningham, L. W., ed.), Academic, New York, pp. 319–372.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yanagashita, M., Midura, R. J., and Hascall, V. C. (1987) Proteoglycans: isolation and purification from tissue cultures, in Methods in Enzymology, vol. 138 (Ginsberg, V., ed.), Academic, New York, pp. 279–289.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lyon, M. and Gallagher, J. T. (1991) Purification and partial characterization of the major cell-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan of rat liver. Biochem. J. 273, 415–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy E. Turnbull
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Research and Cancer Research Campaign, Department of Medical OncologyUniversity of Manchester, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium InstituteManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations