Analysis of Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and-Related Compounds in Retina and Brain
The eicosanoids are oxygenated products of arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins (PCs) are synthesized by cyclooxygenase; hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and leukotrienes (LTs) are synthesized by lipoxygenase (for reviews, see Hammarstrom, 1983; Lands, 1979). Prostaglandins are variations of the 20-carbon fatty acid prostanoic acid, and their nomenclature is based on the oxygen-derived substitutions in the five-membered ring and the number of double bonds in the two side chains. The carboxylic acid function is present in the α side chain, and the terminal methyl group is present in the β side chain. Thromboxanes and prostacyclin have a slightly modified ring structure. Lipoxygenase reaction products can occur as various isomers, depending upon where addition of oxygen takes place. The immediate precursors of HETEs are hydroperoxy derivatives (HPETEs). Further metabolism of HPETEs by dehydration to epoxides and addition of glutathione results in the synthesis of leukotrienes. Eicosanoids can also be synthesized from other fatty acids, such as eicosatrienoic acid (20:3, n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-6). Prostaglandins from arachidonic acid are the 2-series, e.g., PGE2. The l-series are products of 20:3 (n-6), and the 3-series are products of 20:5 (n-6).
KeywordsCholesterol HPLC Microwave Glutathione Hexane
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