Automated High-Throughput Protein Crystallization

  • Arezou Azarani
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


X-ray crystallography provides key biological insights into the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins, as well as essential information on protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, therefore facilitating the design of more effective clinical drugs. The three most popular protein crystallization methods—vapor-diffusion sitting drop, hanging drop, and microbatch (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), most commonly used by investigators-convey major economical disadvantages for the setup of rapid large-scale crystallization of new proteins. Lack of suitable automation for the numerous lengthy and labor-intensive setup steps, irreproducibility as a result of manual intervention, waste of precious and scarce protein samples caused by the absence of precise low-volume dispensers and appropriate plate technology, exorbitant consumption of time, and cost (4,5) are among the most common drawbacks of high-throughput crystallization.


Protein Crystallization Crystallization Reaction Plate Technology Screen Plate Viscous Protein 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arezou Azarani
    • 1
  1. 1.Protogen ConsultingSan Jose

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