Advertisement

The Retroviral Life Cycle and the Molecular Construction of Retrovirus Vectors

  • Richard Vile
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 8)

Abstract

The discovery of a filterable agent that allowed the transmission of cancers in chickens (1) was the first identification of the viruses now known as retroviruses. Subsequently, genes transmitted by some retroviruses were identified as transforming oncogenes. These findings suggested that retroviruses may be used as genetic vectors, since retroviral oncogenes (v-onc) are altered forms of “highjacked” normal cellular genes (2), and the retroviruses that transform cells in culture are often defective for replication because the v-onc genes have been substituted in place of one or more of the essential replicative genes (3). Such defective oncogenic retroviruses can be propagated only in the presence of a wild-type “helper” virus, which supplies the functional gene products of the virus. Retroviruses can now be modified to become vehicles for the delivery and expression of cloned genes into a wide variety of cells, for both experimental and therapeutic purposes.

Keywords

Genomic Transcript Minus Strand Internal Promoter Producer Cell Line Vector Genome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Rous, P. (1911) A sarcoma of the fowl transmissible by an agent separable from the tumour cells. J. Exp. Med. 13, 397–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stehelin, D., Varmus, H. E., Bishop, J. M., and Vogt, P. K. (1976) DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA. Nature 260, 170–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Neil, J C., Hughes, D, McFarlane, R., Wilkie, N M., Oinions, D. E., Lees, G., and Jarrett, O. (1984) Transduction and rearrangement of the myc gene by feline leukaemia virus in naturally occurring T-cell leukaemias. Nature 308, 814–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Friedmann, T. (1989) Progress toward human gene therapy. Science 244, 1275–1281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gluzman, Y. and Hughes, S. H. (1988) Viral Vectors (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Panganiban, A. T. and Fiore, D. (1988) Ordered interstrand and intrastrand DNA transfer during reverse transcription. Science 241, 1064–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Varmus, H. E. (1983) Retroviruses, in Mobile Genetic Elements. (Shapiro, J., ed), Academic, NY, pp. 411–503.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mann, R., Mulligan, R. C., and Baltimore, D. (1983) Construction of a retrovirus packaging mutant and its use to produce helper-free defective retrovirus. Cell 33, 153–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mann, R. and Baltimore, D. (1985) Varying the position of a retrovirus packaging sequence results in the encapsidation of both unspliced and spliced RNAs. J Virol. 54, 401–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weiss, R. A., Teich, N., Varmus, J, and Coffin, J., eds. (1982,1985) Molecular Biology of Tumor Viruses, RNA Tumor Viruses (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY), vols. 1, 2.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bender, M. A., Palmer, T. D., Gelinas, R. E., and Miller, A D. (1987) Evıdence that the packaging signal of Moloney murine leukaemia virus extends into the gag region J. Virol 61, 1639–1646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Varmus, H. E. (1988) Retroviruses. Science 240, 1427–1435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Panganiban, A. T. and Varmus, H. M. (1983) The terminal nucleotides of retrovirus DNA are required for integration but not virus production. Nature 306, 155–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Keller, G., Paige, P., Gilboa, E., and Wagner, E. F. (1985) Expression of a foreign gene in myeloid and lymphoid cells derived from multipotent haematopoietic precursors. Nature 318, 149–154.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Korman, A. J., Frantz, J. D., Strominger, J. L., and Mulligan, R. C. (1987) Expression of human class II major histocompatibihty complex antigens using retrovirus vectors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Scı. USA 84, 2150–2154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Emerman, M. and Temin, H. M. (1984) Genes with promoters in retrovirus vectors can be independently suppressed by an epigenic mechanism. Cell 9, 459–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dzierzak, E. A., Papayannopoulou, T., and Mulligan, R. C. (1988) Lineage-specific expression of a human β-globin gene in murine bone marrow transplant recipients reconstituted with retrovirus-transduced stem cells. Nature 331, 35–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grosveld, F., van Assendelft, G. B., Greaves, D. R., and Kollias, G (1987) Position-independent, high-level expression of the human β-globin gene in transgenic mice. Cell 51, 975–985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shin, C.-C., Stoye, J. P., and Coffin, J. M. (1988) Highly preferred targets for retrovirus integration. Cell 53, 531–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu, S.-F., von Ruden, T., Kantoff, P W., Garber, C., Seiberg, M., Ruther, U., Anderson, W. F., Wagner, E. F., and Gilboa, E. (1986) Self-inactivating retroviral vectors designed for transfer of whole genes into mammalian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 3194–3198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cone, R. D., Weber-Benarous, A., Baorto, D., and Mulligan, R. C. (1987) Regulated expression of a complete human beta globin gene encoded by a transmissible retrovirus vector. Mol. Cell. Biol. 7, 887–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yee, J. K., Moores, J. C., Jolly, D. J., Wolff, J. A., Respess, J. G., and Friedmann, T. (1987) Gene expression from transcriptionally disabled retroviral vectors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 5197–5201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hawley, R. G., Covarrubias, L., Hawley, T., and Mintz, B. (1987) Handicapped retroviral vectors efficiently transduce foreign genes into haematopoietic stem cells. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84, 2406–2410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Von Melchner, H. and Ruley, H. E. (1989) Identification of cellular promoters by using a retrovirus promoter trap. J. Virol 63, 3227–3233.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xu, Li., Yee, J.-K., Wolff, J A., and Friedmann, T. (1989) Factors affecting long-term stability of Moloney murine leukaemia virus-based vectors. Virology 171, 331–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Humana Press Inc., Clifton, NJ 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Vile
    • 1
  1. 1.Chester Beatty LaboratoriesInstitute of Cancer ResearchLondonUK

Personalised recommendations