DNA Extraction from Herbarium Specimens
- 3.8k Downloads
With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).
Key wordsDNA extraction Herbarium specimens Difficult plant tissues PCR Microsatellites AFLP
The study was supported by GAČR 206/07/P147, GAČR P506/11/0774, and Institutional Research Plan AV0Z60050516.
- 1.Rogers SO (1994) Phylogenetic and taxonomic information from herbarium and mumified DNA. In: Adams RP et al (eds) Conservation of plant genes II.: utilization of ancient and modern DNA. Miss Bot Gard, Monogr, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, vol 48Google Scholar
- 2.Tailor JW, Swann EC (1994) Dried samples: soft tissues, DNA from herbarium specimens. In: Herrmann B, Hummel S (eds) Ancient DNA. Springer, VerlagGoogle Scholar
- 6.Metsger DA, Byers SC (1999) Managing the modern herbarium, an interdisciplinary approach. Society for the preservation of natural history collections, Washington DC, p 384Google Scholar
- 7.Rogers SO, Bendich AJ (1994) Extraction of total cellular DNA from plants, algae, and fungi. In: Gelvin SB, Schilperoort RA (eds) Plant Molecular Biology Manual, 2nd ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. The Netherlands D1:1–8Google Scholar
- 8.Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem Bull 19:11–15Google Scholar
- 18.Lister DL, Bower MA, Howe CJ, Jones MK (2008) Extraction and amplification of nuclear DNA from herbarium specimens of emmer wheat: a method for assessing DNA preservation by maximum amplicon length recovery. Taxon 57:254–258Google Scholar
- 19.Andreasen K, Manktelow M, Razafimandimbison SG (2009) Successful DNA amplification of a more than 200-year-old herbarium specimen: recovering genetic material from the Linnaean era. Taxon 58:959–962Google Scholar
- 23.Csaikl UM, Bastion H, Brettschneider R, Gauch S, Metr A, Schauerte M, Schulz F, Sperisen C, Vornam B, Ziegenhagen B (1998) Comparative analysis of different DNA extraction protocols: a fast, universal maxi-preparation of high quality plant DNA for genetic evaluation and phylogenetic studies. Plant Mol Biol Rep 16:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar