Fluorescence Imaging with One Nanometer Accuracy: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Molecular Motors
Traditional microscopy techniques are limited by the wave-like characteristics of light, which dictate that about 250 nm (or roughly half the wavelength of the light) is the smallest distance by which two identical objects can be separated while still being able to distinguish between them. Since most biological molecules are much smaller than this limit, traditional light microscopes are generally not sufficient for single-molecule biological studies. Fluorescence Imaging with One Nanometer Accuracy (FIONA) is a technique that makes possible localization of an object to approximately one nanometer. The FIONA technique is simple in concept; it is built upon the idea that, if enough photons are collected, one can find the exact center of a fluorophore’s emission to within a single nanometer and track its motion with a very high level of precision. The center can be localized to approximately (λ/2)/Ö—N, where λ is the wavelength of the light and N is the number of photons collected. When N = 10,000, FIONA achieves an accuracy of 1–2 nm, assuming the background is sufficiently low. FIONA, thus, works best with the use of high-quality dyes and fluorescence stabilization buffers, sensitive detection methods, and special microscopy techniques to reduce background fluorescence. FIONA is particularly well suited to the study of molecular motors, which are enzymes that couple ATP hydrolysis to conformational change and motion. In this chapter, we discuss the practical application of FIONA to molecular motors or other enzymes in biological systems.
Key wordsFIONA Molecular motors Single-molecule tracking TIRF microscopy
The authors acknowledge the NIH and NSF for financial support.
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