Advertisement

Polyamines pp 113-126 | Cite as

Polyamine Block of Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels

  • Harley T. Kurata
  • Wayland W. L. Cheng
  • Colin G. NicholsEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 720)

Abstract

Polyamine blockade of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels underlies their steep voltage-­dependence observed in native cells. The structural determinants of polyamine blockade and the structure-activity profile of endogenous polyamines requires specialized methodology for characterizing polyamine interactions with Kir channels. Recent identification and growing interest in the structure and function of prokaryotic Kir channels (KirBacs) has driven the development of new techniques for measuring ion channel activity. Several methods for measuring polyamine interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic Kir channels are discussed.

Key words

Inward rectifier Potassium channel Electrophysiology Patch-clamp Ion channel blockade 

References

  1. 1.
    Nichols CG (2006) KATP channels as molecular sensors of cellular metabolism. Nature 440:470–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kane GC, Lam CF, O’Cochlain F, Hodgson DM, Reyes S, Liu XK, Miki T, Seino S, Katusic ZS, Terzic A (2006) Gene knockout of the KCNJ8-encoded Kir6.1 K(ATP) channel imparts fatal susceptibility to endotoxemia. FASEB J 20:2271–2280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bockenhauer D, Feather S, Stanescu HC, Bandulik S, Zdebik AA, Reichold M, Tobin J, Lieberer E, Sterner C, Landoure G, Arora R, Sirimanna T, Thompson D, Cross JH, van’t Hoff W, Al Masri O, Tullus K, Yeung S, Anikster Y, Klootwijk E, Hubank M, Dillon MJ, Heitzmann D, Arcos-Burgos M, Knepper MA, Dobbie A, Gahl WA, Warth R, Sheridan E, Kleta R (2009) Epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, tubulopathy, and KCNJ10 mutations. N Engl J Med 360:1960–1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nichols CG, Lopatin AN (1997) Inward rectifier potassium channels. Annu Rev Physiol 59:171–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lu Z (2004) Mechanism of rectification in inward-rectifier K+ channels. Annu Rev Physiol 66:103–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lopatin AN, Makhina EN, Nichols CG (1994) Potassium channel block by cytoplasmic polyamines as the mechanism of intrinsic rectification. Nature 372:366–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shyng S, Ferrigni T, Nichols CG (1997) Control of rectification and gating of cloned KATP channels by the Kir6.2 subunit. J Gen Physiol 110:141–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fujiwara Y, Kubo Y (2006) Functional roles of charged amino acid residues on the wall of the cytoplasmic pore of Kir2.1. J Gen Physiol 127:401–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Enkvetchakul D, Jeliazkova I, Nichols CG (2005) Direct modulation of Kir channel gating by membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. J Biol Chem 280:35785–35788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Enkvetchakul D, Bhattacharyya J, Jeliazkova I, Groesbeck DK, Cukras CA, Nichols CG (2004) Functional characterization of a prokaryotic Kir channel. J Biol Chem 279:47076–47080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuo A, Gulbis JM, Antcliff JF, Rahman T, Lowe ED, Zimmer J, Cuthbertson J, Ashcroft FM, Ezaki T, Doyle DA (2003) Crystal structure of the potassium channel KirBac1.1 in the closed state. Science 300:1922–1926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuo A, Domene C, Johnson LN, Doyle DA, Venien-Bryan C (2005) Two different conformational states of the KirBac3.1 potassium channel revealed by electron crystallography. Structure 13:1463–1472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cheng WW, Enkvetchakul D, Nichols CG (2009) KirBac1.1: it’s an inward rectifying potassium channel. J Gen Physiol 133:295–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harley T. Kurata
    • 1
  • Wayland W. L. Cheng
    • 2
  • Colin G. Nichols
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology, and TherapeuticsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of Cell Biology and PhysiologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations