Methods to Evaluate Alterations in Polyamine Metabolism Caused by Helicobacter pylori Infection
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria that infects the human stomach of half of the world’s population. Colonization is followed by infiltration of the gastric mucosa by lymphocytes and myeloid cells. These cells are activated by various bacterial factors, causing them to produce immune/inflammatory mediators, including reactive nitrogen species and polyamines that contribute to cellular damage and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated gastric cancer. In vitro experiments have revealed that H. pylori induces macrophage polyamine production by upregulation of the arginase 2/ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) metabolic pathway and enhances hydrogen peroxide synthesis through the activity of spermidine oxidase (SMO). In this chapter, we present a survey of the methods used to analyze the induction and the role of the enzymes related to polyamine metabolism, i.e., arginase, ODC, and SMO in H. pylori-infected macrophages.
Key wordsMacrophage Arginase Ornithine decarboxylase Spermine oxidase Helicobacter pylori
This work was supported by R01 DK053620, R01 AT004821, P01 CA116087, P01 CA028842, P30 DK058404 (Vanderbilt Digestive Disease Center), and a Merit Review Grant from the Office of Medical Research, Department of Veterans Affairs. APG is also supported by a grant from Philippe Foundation.
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