Chickpea Hybridization Using In Vitro Techniques

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 710)


Tissue culture techniques play an important role in the utilization of wild Cicer species for the improvement­ of cultivated chickpea. Utilization of wild Cicer species has become essential as a series of evolutionary bottlenecks have narrowed the genetic base of chickpea, thus making it susceptible to a range of diseases and pests. Crosses with wild Cicer can broaden its genetic base and introduce useful traits. Except for two wild species, none of the other Cicer species are cross-compatible. To use a range of Cicer species for the improvement of chickpea, embryo rescue and tissue culture techniques are necessary. The success of the cross with incompatible species depended on a range of techniques including the application of growth regulators to pollinated pistils and saving aborting embryos in vitro. Further, the chances of successful transfer of hybrid shoots to soil are greater if the hybrid shoots are grafted to chickpea stocks.

Key words

Chickpea Cicer species Cleft graft Embryo rescue Growth regulators Incompatibility 


  1. 1.
    Williams PC, Singh U (1987) Nutritional quality and the evaluation of quality in breeding programme. In: Saxena MC, Singh KB (eds) The chickpea. C.A.B. International, Wallingford, UK, pp 125–130Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abbo S, Molina C, Jungmann R, Grusak M, Berkovitch Z, Reifen R, Kahl G, Winter P, Reifen R (2005) Quantitative trait loci governing carotenoid concentration and weight in seeds of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theor Appl Genet 111:185–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kerem Z, Gopher A, Lev-Yadun S, Weinberg P, Abbo S (2007) Chickpea domestication in the Neolithic Levant through the nutritional perspective. J Archaeol Sci 34:1289–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nene YL, Haware MP (1980) Screening chickpea for resistance to wilt. Plant Dis 64:379–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reed W, Cardona C, Sithanantham S, Lateef SS (1987) Chickpea insect pests and their control. In: Saxena MC, Singh KB (eds) The chickpea. C.A.B. International, Wallingford, UK, pp 283–318Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Collard BCY, Pang ECK, Ades PK, Taylor PWJ (2003) Preliminary investigation of QTLs associated with seedling resistance to Ascochyta blight from Cicer echinopsermum, a wild ­relative of chickpea. Theor Appl Genet 107:719–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ramgopal D (2006) Characterization and evaluation of annual wild Cicer species and study the transfer of Botrytis gray mold and Ascochyta blight resistance from Cicer echinopsermum into cultivated species. Ph.D. Thesis, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mallikarjuna N, Sharma HC, Upadhyaya HD (2007) Exploitation of wild relatives of pigeonpea and chickpea for resistance to Helicoverpa armigera. SAT e-Journal 3:4–7Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malhotra RS, Singh KB, Di Vito M, Greco N, Saxena MC (2002) Registration of ILC 10765 and ILC 10766 chickpea germplasm lines resistant to cyst nematode. Crop Sci 42:1756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Singh KB, Ocampo B (1997) Exploitation of wild Cicer species for the yield improvement of chickpea. Theor Appl Genet 95:418–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harlan J, de Wet J (1971) Towards a rational classification of cultivated plants. Taxon 20:509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    van der Maesen LJG, Maxted N, Javadi F, Coles S, Davies AMR (2007) Taxonomy of the genus Cicer revisited. In: Yadav SS, Redden B, Chen W, Sharma B (eds) Chickpea breeding and management. C.A.B. International, Wallingford, UK, pp 14–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharma HC, Pampapathy G, Lanka SK, Ridsdill-Smith TJ (2005) Antibiosis mechanism of resistance to pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera in wild relatives of chickpea. Euphytica 142:107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pande S, Ramgopal D, Kishore GK, Mallikarjuna N, Sharma M, Pathak M, Narayana Rao J (2006) Evaluation of wild Cicer species for resistance to Ascochyta blight and Botrytis gray mold in controlled environment at ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. ICPN 13:25–26Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bhattarai T, Fettig S (2005) Isolation and characterization of a dehydrin gene from Cicer pinnatifidum, a drought-resistant wild relative of chickpea. Physiol Plant 123:452–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muehlbauer FJ, Kaiser WJ, Simon CJ (1994) Potential for wild species in cool season food legume breeding. Euphytica 73:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sharma HC, Bhagwat MP, Pampapathy G, Sharma JP, Ridsdill-Smith TJ (2006) Perennial wild Cicer relatives of chickpea as potential sources of resistance to Helicoverpa armigera. Genet Resour Crop Evol 53:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaiser WJ, Alcala-Jimenez AR, Hervas-Vargas A, Trapero-cacas JL, Jimenez-Diaz RM (1994) Screening of wild Cicer species for resistance to races 0 and 5 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Plant Dis 78:962–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Toker C, Canci H, Yildirim T (2007) Evaluation of perennial wild Cicer species for drought resistance. Genet Resour Crop Evol 54:1781–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ahmad F, Slinkard AE, Scoles GJ (1988) Investigations into the barrier(s) to interspecific hybridization between Cicer arietinum L. and eight other annual Cicer species. Plant Breed 100:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mallikarjuna N (1999) Ovule and embryo culture to obtain hybrids from interspecific incompatible pollinations in chickpea. Euphytica 110:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Badami PS, Mallikarjuna N, Moss JP (1997) Interspecific hybridization between Cicer arietinum and C. pinnatifidum. Plant Breed 116:393–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kumar AS, Gamborg OL, Nabors MW (1988) Plant regeneration from cell suspension cultures of Vigna aconitifolia. Plant Cell Rep 7:138–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mallikarjuna N, Jadhav DR (2008) Techniques to produce hybrid between Cicer arietinum L.  ×  C. pinnatifidum Jaub. Indian J Genet 68:1–8Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Grewal RK, Lulsdorf M, Croser J, Ochatt S, Vandenberg A, Warkentin TD (2009) Doubled-haploid production in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): role of stress treatments. Plant Cell Rep 28:1289–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mallikarjuna N, Jadhav DJ, Clarke H, Coyne C, Muehlbauer F (2005) Induction of androgenesis as a consequence of wide crossing in chickpea. Int Chickpea Pigeonpea Newsl 12:12–15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)PatancheruIndia
  2. 2.Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of AgricultureWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations