Linking Quorum Sensing Regulation and Biofilm Formation by Candida albicans
Candida albicans biofilms are surface-associated, structured communities composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. C. albicans biofilms often lead to life-threatening systemic infections and are particularly difficult to eradicate because of their high levels of resistance to antibiotics. Farnesol, an autoregulatory molecule secreted by C. albicans, inhibits hyphal growth and the expression of a number of morphology-specific genes that are necessary for robust biofilm formation. Many stages of biofilm development are impacted by farnesol including the adherence of cells to the substratum, the architecture of mature biofilms, and the dispersal of cells from biofilms. For these reasons, understanding the mechanisms of action of farnesol could lead to the development of new antifungal compounds that target C. albicans biofilm cells, perhaps rendering biofilms more sensitive to antibiotics. Here, we describe several methods for the analysis of the effects of farnesol on biofilm formation and function.
Key wordsFarnesol Biofilm Candida albicans Morphology
We thank Dr. Aaron Mitchell (Carnegre mellon University, PA, USA) for providing CSLM pictures. The data described in this chapter were generated in studies funded by NIH (K22 DE016542, D.A.H.).
- 35.Nikawa, H., Jin, C., Hamada, T., Makihira, S., Kumagai, H., and Murata, H. (2000) Interactions between thermal cycled resilient denture lining materials, salivary and serum pellicles and Candida albicans in vitro. Part II. Effects on fungal colonization. J Oral Rehabil 27, 124–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar