Advertisement

Quality Aspects of TMA Analysis

  • Pierre Tennstedt
  • Guido SauterEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 664)

Abstract

The quality of a TMA experiment can only be as good as the worst step in the entire process. Making and analyzing of tissue microarrays (TMAs) is a complex process involving tissue sample acquisition and preparation, expert histological diagnosis, long-term collection of clinical data, development of suitable laboratory protocols, the microscopic analysis, and the statistical analysis of the experiment. The quality of all these factors equally influences the outcome of TMA studies.

Key words

Tissue microarray Formalin fixation Antibody Tissue preservation 

References

  1. 1.
    Schlomm, T., Nakel, E., Lubke, A., Buness, A., Chun, F. K., Steuber, T., Graefen, M., Simon, R., Sauter, G., Poustka, A., Huland, H., Erbersdobler, A., Sultmann, H., Hellwinkel, O. J. (2007) Marked gene transcript level alterations occur early during radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol; 53(2):333–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fox, C. H., Johnson, F. B., Whiting, J., Roller, P. P. (1985) Formaldehyde fixation. J Histochem Cytochem; 8:845–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Kuraya, K., Schraml, P., Torhorst, J., Tapia, C., Zaharieva, B., Novotny, H., Spichtin, H., Maurer, R., Mirlacher, M., Kochli, O., Zuber, M., Dieterich, H., Mross, F., Wilber, K., Simon, R., Sauter, G. (2004) Prognostic relevance of gene amplifications and coamplifications in breast cancer. Cancer Res; 23:8534–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tapia, C., Schraml, P., Simon, R., Al-Kuraya, K. S., Maurer, R., Mirlacher, M., Novotny, H., Spichtin, H., Mihatsch, M. J., Sauter, G. (2004) HER2 analysis in breast cancer: reduced immunoreactivity in FISH non-informative cancer biopsies. Int J Oncol; 6:1551–7.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Torhorst, J., Bucher, C., Kononen, J., Haas, P., Zuber, M., Kochli, O. R., Mross, F., Dieterich, H., Moch, H., Mihatsch, M., Kallioniemi, O. P., Sauter, G. (2001) Tissue microarrays for rapid linking of molecular changes to clinical endpoints. Am J Pathol; 6:2249–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ruiz, C., Seibt, S., Al Kuraya, K., Siraj, A. K., Mirlacher, M., Schraml, P., Maurer, R., Spichtin, H., Torhorst, J., Popovska, S., Simon, R., Sauter, G. (2006) Tissue microarrays for comparing molecular features with proliferation activity in breast cancer. Int J Cancer; 9:2190–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Al-Kuraya, K., Schraml, P., Sheikh, S., Amr, S., Torhorst, J., Tapia, C., Novotny, H., Spichtin, H., Maurer, R., Mirlacher, M., Simon, R., Sauter, G. (2005) Predominance of high-grade pathway in breast cancer development of Middle East women. Mod Pathol; 7:891–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    FDA (1997) U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In vitro diagnostic devices: guidance for the preparation of 510(k) submissions – Appendix K – points to consider for review of calibration and quality control labeling for in vitro diagnostic devices. 2/1/96; 1–50.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gerdes, J., Lemke, H., Baisch, H., Wacker, H. H., Schwab, U., Stein, H. (1984) Cell cycle analysis of a cell proliferation-associated human nuclear antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. J Immunol; 4:1710–5.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tosoni, I., Wagner, U., Sauter, G., Egloff, M., Knonagel, H., Alund, G., Bannwart, F., Mihatsch, M. J., Gasser, T. C., Maurer, R. (2000) Clinical significance of interobserver differences in the staging and grading of superficial bladder cancer. BJU Int; 1:48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wrba, F., Reiner, A., Ritzinger, E., Holzner, J. H., Reiner, G. (1988) Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) on breast carcinomas in relation to growth fractions, estrogen receptor status and morphological criteria. An immunohistochemical study. Pathol Res Pract; 1:25–9.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bhargava, R., Gerald, W. L., Li, A. R., Pan, Q., Lal, P., Ladanyi, M., Chen, B. (2005) EGFR gene amplification in breast cancer: correlation with epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA and protein expression and HER-2 status and absence of EGFR-activating mutations. Mod Pathol; 8:1027–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chakravarti, A., Winter, K., Wu, C. L., Kaufman, D., Hammond, E., Parliament, M., Tester, W., Hagan, M., Grignon, D., Heney, N., Pollack, A., Sandler, H., Shipley, W. (2005) Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Her-2 are predictors of favorable outcome and reduced complete response rates, respectively, in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancers treated by concurrent radiation and cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2:309–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ding, Y., Wang, G., Ling, M. T., Wong, Y. C., Li, X., Na, Y., Zhang, X., Chua, C. W., Wang, X., Xin, D. (2006) Significance of Id-1 up-regulation and its association with EGFR in bladder cancer cell invasion. Int J Oncol; 4:847–54.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lassus, H., Sihto, H., Leminen, A., Joensuu, H., Isola, J., Nupponen, N., Butzow, R. (2006) Gene amplification, mutation, and protein expression of EGFR and mutations of ERBB2 in serous ovarian carcinoma. J Mol Med; 8:671–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stadlmann, S., Gueth, U., Reiser, U., Diener, P.-A., Zeimet, A. G., Wight, E., Mirlacher, M., Sauter, G., Mihatsch, M. J., Singer, G. (2006) Epithelial growth factor receptor status in primary and recurrent ovarian cancer. Mod Pathol; 4:607–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Doger, F. K., Meteoglu, I., Tuncyurek, P., Okyay, P., Cevikel, H. (2006) Does the EGFR and VEGF expression predict the prognosis in colon cancer? Eur Surg Res; 6:540–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rohit, B., Beiyun, C., David, S. K., Leonard, B. S., Cyrus, H., Laura, H. T., William, G., Julie, T.-F., Philip, B. P., Jing, Q., Jinru, S. (2006) Comparison of two antibodies for immunohistochemical evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in colorectal carcinomas, adenomas, and normal mucosa. Cancer; 8:1857–62.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jacobs, T. W., Prioleau, J. E., Stillman, I. E., Schnitt, S. J. (1996) Loss of tumor marker-immunostaining intensity on stored paraffin slides of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst; 15:1054–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Manne, U., Myers, R. B., Srivastava, S., Grizzle, W. E. (1997) Re: loss of tumor marker-immunostaining intensity on stored paraffin slides of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst; 8:585–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bertheau, P., Cazals-Hatem, D., Meignin, V., de Roquancourt, A., Verola, O., Lesourd, A., Sene, C., Brocheriou, C., Janin, A. (1998) Variability of immunohistochemical reactivity on stored paraffin slides. J Clin Pathol; 5:370–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mirlacher, M., Kasper, M., Storz, M., Knecht, Y., Durmuller, U., Simon, R., Mihatsch, M. J., Sauter, G. (2004) Influence of slide aging on results of translational research studies using immunohistochemistry. Mod Pathol; 11:1414–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schlomm, T., Iwers, L., Kirstein, P., Jessen, B., Kollermann, J., Minner, S., Passow-Drolet, A., Mirlacher, M., Milde-Langosch, K., Graefen, M., Haese, A., Steuber, T., Simon, R., Huland, H., Sauter, G., Erbersdobler, A. (2008) Clinical significance of p53 alterations in surgically treated prostate cancers. Mod Pathol; 21(11):1371–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Darby, I. A., Bisucci, T., Desmouliere, A., Hewitson, T. D. (2006) In situ hybridization using cRNA probes: isotopic and nonisotopic detection methods. Methods Mol Biol; 326:17–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barlund, M., Forozan, F., Kononen, J., Bubendorf, L., Chen, Y., Bittner, M. L., Torhorst, J., Haas, P., Bucher, C., Sauter, G., Kallioniemi, O. P., Kallioniemi, A. (2000) Detecting activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase by complementary DNA and tissue microarray analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst; 15:1252–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hanley, K. Z., Siddiqui, M. T., Lawson, D., Cohen, C., Nassar, A. (2009) Evaluation of new monoclonal antibodies in detection of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Her2 protein expression in breast carcinoma cell block sections using conventional microscopy and quantitative image analysis. Diagn Cytopathol; 4:251–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moeder, C. B., Giltnane, J. M., Moulis, S. P., Rimm, D. L. (2009) Quantitative, fluorescence-based in-situ assessment of protein expression. Methods Mol Biol; 520:163–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PathologyUniversity Medical Center Hamburg EppendorfHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations