Treatment of Mice with Retinoids In Vivo and In Vitro

  • Gillian M. Morriss-Kay
Part of the METHODS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY™ book series (MIMB, volume 461)

1. Introduction

The retinoids comprise a large group of natural and synthetic compounds related to vitamin A (retinol). The family name is derived from the early observation of the necessity of vitamin A for normal vision and the association of vitamin A deficiency with night blindness (1). With the exception of the visual cycle in the rod photoreceptor cells of the retina, in which protein-bound 11-cis-retinal is reversibly isomerized to free all-trans-retinal, retinoic acid is the active retinoid for biological processes. However, the visual cycle illustrates two characteristics of retinoids that are relevant to the use of this family of molecules as tools in experimental embryology and for the interpretation of results: (1e light-sensitive, and will undergo isomerization or degradation if exposed to light; (2) in nature, their activity and their metabolism are associated with binding to specific proteins.

The most important natural retinoids are retinyl esters, retinol, and retinoic...


Retinoic Acid Retinol Binding Protein Retinyl Ester Retinyl Acetate Limb Abnormality 
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© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gillian M. Morriss-Kay
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Anatomy and GeneticsUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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