A Method for Generating Transgenic Frog Embryos
The amphibian embryo has classically been one of the best systems for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of early development, in particular for studies of mesodermal and neural induction. Amphibian embryos develop externally and are large and robust. Therefore, tissues can be dissected, isolated, or transplanted with high precision and ease in these embryos. In addition, it is relatively easy to manipulate the expression of gene products by injecting in-vitro transcribed RNAs into developing embryos. However, since RNAs are translated soon after injection, this method has been used mainly for studying early stages of development. Manipulating genes specifically during later stages of development requires fine control over the time and place of expression, which can be achieved only through transgenic technology. In this chapter, we describe a very efficient method of transgenesis developed for Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis.
KeywordsHuman Chorionic Gonadotropin Nuclear Transplantation Sperm Nucleus Xenopus Tropicalis Transgenic Embryo
We thank Jennifer Taylor and Roz Friday for comments on the manuscript. We also thank Odile Bronchain, who helped modify the protocol for Xenopus tropicalis. Enrique Amaya was a Welcome Trust senior research fellow. This work was funded by The Wellcome Trust.
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