Advertisement

Mesoderm Induction Assays

  • C. Michael Jones
  • James C. Smith
Part of the METHODS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY™ book series (MIMB, volume 461)

1. Introduction

Inductive interactions play a major role in early development, and one of the earliest such interactions in amphibian development, and perhaps the in development of all vertebrates, is mesoderm induction ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Mesoderm induction occurs at blastula stages, when a signal from the vegetal hemisphere of the embryo acts on overlying equatorial cells, causing them to form mesoderm rather than ectoderm. This interaction was first discovered in experiments in which prospective ectodermal tissue of the embryo (the so-called “animal cap”) is juxtaposed with future endoderm from the vegetal hemisphere (Fig. 1). When cultured alone, the animal caps form epidermis; when cultured adjacent to vegetal pole blastomeres, they form mesoderm.

Keywords

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Xenopus Embryo Animal Pole Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin Vegetal Pole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Nieuwkoop, P. D. (1969) The formation of mesoderm in Urodelean amphibians. I. Induction by the endoderm. Wilhelm Roux's Arch. EntwMech. Org. 162,341–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gurdon, J. B., Fairman, S., Mohun, T. J., and Brennan, S. (1985) Activation of muscle-specific actin genes in Xenopus development by an induction between animal and vegetal cells of a blastula. Cell 41, 913–922.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sive, H. L. (1993) The frog prince-ss: A molecular formula for dorsoventral patterning in Xenopus. Genes Dev. 7,1–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Slack, J. M. W. (1994) Inducing factors in Xenopus early embryos. Curr. Biol. 4,116–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith, J. C. (1995) Mesoderm-inducing factors and mesodermal patterning. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 7,856–861.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jones, C. M., Kuehn, M. R., Hogan, B. L. M., Smith, J. C., and Wright, C. V. E. (1995) Nodal-related signals induce axial mesoderm and dorsalize mesoderm during gastrulation. Development 121,3651–3662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith, W. C., McKendry, R., Ribisi, S. J., and Harland, R. M. (1995) A nodal-related gene defines a physical and functional domain within the Spemann organizer. Cell 82,37–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gotoh, Y., Masuyama, N., Suzuki, A., Ueno, N., and Nishida, E. (1995) Involvement of the MAP kinase cascade in Xenopus mesoderm induction. EMBO J. 14,2491–2498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    LaBonne, C., Burke, B., and Whitman, M. (1995) Role of MAP kinase in meso-derm induction and axial patterning during Xenopus development. Development 121,1475–1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Umbhauer, M., Marshall, C. J., Mason, C. S., Old, R. W., and Smith, J. C. (1995) Mesoderm induction in Xenopus caused by activation of MAP kinase. Nature 376,58–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baker, J. C. and Harland, R. M. (1996) A novel mesoderm inducer, Madr2, functions in the activin signal transduction pathway. Genes Dev. 10,1880–1889.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Durbec, P., Marcos-Gutierrez, C. V., Kilkenny, C., Grigoriou, M., Wartiowaara, K., Suvanto, P., Smith, D., Poner, B., Costantini, F., Saarma, M., Sariola, H., and Pachnis, V. (1996) GDNF signalling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. Nature 381,789–793.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smith, J. C. (1993) Purifying and assaying mesoderm-inducing factors from vertebrate embryos, in: Cellular Interactions in Development—A Practical Approach (Hartley, D., ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 181–204.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Slack, J. M. W. (1984) Regional biosynthetic markers in the early amphibian embryo. J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 80,289–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krieg, P. A. and Melton, D. A. (1984) Functional messenger RNAs are produced by SP6 in vitro transcription of cloned cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 12,7057–7070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rupp, R. A. W., Snider, L., and Weintraub, H. (1994) Xenopus embryos regulate the nuclear localization of XMyoD. Genes Dev. 8,1311–1323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Turner, D. L. and Weintraub, H. (1994) Expression of achaete-scute homolog 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a neural fate. Genes Dev. 8,1434–1447.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Symes, K. and Smith, J. C. (1987) Gastrulation movements provide an early marker of mesoderm induction in Xenopus. Development 101,339–349.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Green, J. B. A., Howes, G., Symes, K., Cooke, J., and Smith, J. C. (1990) The biological effects of XTC-MIF: quantitative comparison with Xenopus bFGF. Development 108,229–238.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sokol, S. and Melton, D. A. (1991) Pre-existent pattern in Xenopus animal pole cells revealed by induction with activin. Nature 351,409–411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Michael Jones
    • 1
  • James C. Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Molecular MedicineSingapore
  2. 2.CRC/Wellcome Trust Gurdon InstituteUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations