As technology advances, diagnostic tests continue to improve, and each year, we are presented with new alternatives to the standard procedures. Given the plethora of diagnostic alternatives, diagnostic tests must be evaluated to determine their place in the diagnostic armamentarium. Criteria include sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios for positive and negative tests, and receiver operating characteristic curves. The prevalence of disease influences the diagnostic utility of tests, particularly when diseases are rare or very frequent.
Diagnostic tests sensitivity specificity positive predictive value negative predictive value likelihood ratio receiver operating characteristic curve
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more
Guyatt, G., Drummond, R. Users' Guides to the Medical Literature: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice.Google Scholar
Sackett, D. L., Haynes, R. B., Guyatt, G., Tugwell, P. Clinical Epidemiology A Basic Science for Clinical Medicine.Google Scholar
4. Obuchowski, N. A. (2003) Receiver operating characteristic curves and their use in radiology. Radiology 229, 3–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Glas, S. G., Lijmer, J. G., Prins, M. H., et al. (2003) The diagnostic odds ratio: A single indicator of test performance. J Clin Epidemiol 56, 1129–1135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
6. Mullherin, S. A., Miller, M. C. (2002) Spectrum bias or spectrum effect? Subgroup variation in diagnostic test evaluation. Ann Int Med 137, 598–602.Google Scholar
7. Knottnerus, J. A., Muris, J. W. (2003) Assessment of the accuracy of diagnostic tests: The cross-sectional study. J Clin Epidemiol 56, 1118–1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
8. Ransohoff, D. F. (2002) Challenges and opportunities in evaluating diagnostic tests. J Clin Epidiomol 55, 1178–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9. Lord, S. J., Irwig L. E., Simes, R. J. (2006) When is measuring sensitivity and specificity sufficient to evaluate a diagnostic test, and when do we need randomized trials? Ann Int Med 144, 850–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
10. Obuchowski, N. A. (1998) Sample size calculations in studies of test accuracy. Stat Meth Med Res 7, 371–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar