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Microarrays pp 411-436 | Cite as

Nanotechnology

Moving From Microarrays Toward Nanoarrays
  • Hua Chen
  • Jun Li
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 381)

Abstract

Microarrays are important tools for high-throughput analysis of biomolecules. The use of microarrays for parallel screening of nucleic acid and protein profiles has become an industry standard. A few limitations of microarrays are the requirement for relatively large sample volumes and elongated incubation time, as well as the limit of detection. In addition, traditional microarrays make use of bulky instrumentation for the detection, and sample amplification and labeling are quite laborious, which increase analysis cost and delays the time for obtaining results. These problems limit microarray techniques from point-of-care and field applications. One strategy for overcoming these problems is to develop nanoarrays, particularly electronicsbased nanoarrays. With further miniaturization, higher sensitivity, and simplified sample preparation, nanoarrays could potentially be employed for biomolecular analysis in personal healthcare and monitoring of trace pathogens. In this chapter, it is intended to introduce the concept and advantage of nanotechnology and then describe current methods and protocols for novel nanoarrays in three aspects: (1) label-free nucleic acids analysis using nanoarrays, (2) nanoarrays for protein detection by conventional optical fluorescence microscopy as well as by novel label-free methods such as atomic force microscopy, and (3) nanoarray for enzymatic-based assay. These nanoarrays will have significant applications in drug discovery, medical diagnosis, genetic testing, environmental monitoring, and food safety inspection.

Key Words

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) carbon nanotube (CNT) CCD camera chemical vapor deposition (CVD) CNT nanoelectrode array electrochemical enzymatic assay multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanoarray nanochip array nanoelectrode nanolithography nanotechnology nucleic acid analysis plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) protein detection scanning probe microscopy self-assembly single-walled carbon nanotube 

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hua Chen
    • 1
  • Jun Li
    • 1
  1. 1.NASA Ames Research CenterMoffett Field

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