Characterization of Nonmalignant and Malignant Prostatic Stem/Progenitor Cells by Hoechst Side Population Method
- 2.2k Downloads
Recent technical progress in the field of cancer stem/progenitor cell research revealed that these malignant cells may provide critical roles for primary tumor growth, metastases at distant tissues and organs, treatment resistance, and disease relapse. The precise molecular oncogenic events that frequently occur in cancer stem/progenitor cells and their early progenies during the early and late stages of cancer progression as well as their contribution to the treatment resistance and disease recurrence remain poorly defined. This lack of information on the deregulated gene products that may be involved in the malignant transformation of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells into highly tumorigenic and/or migrating cancer stem/progenitor cells emphasizes the urgent need to perform future investigations. Toward this direction, we describe in this book chapter the characterization of nonmalignant and malignant prostatic stem/progenitor cells from well-established cell lines by Hoechst side population method. This novel approach should help to establish novel in vitro and in vivo models of human cancer stem/progenitor cell mimicking more closely the genetic and phenotypic changes occurring during the different stages of prostate carcinogenesis and disease progression in clinical settings. Of therapeutic interest, the identification of new biomarkers and molecular targets specific to these prostatic cancer-initiating cells should also help to develop more effective diagnostic and prognostic tests and chemopreventive and therapeutic treatments for the patients diagnosed at early and late stages of disease progression.
Key wordsProstatic stem/progenitor cells prostatic cancer stem/progenitor cells Hoechst side population technique fluorescence-activated cell sorting
The authors of this manuscript are supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Defense (PC04502) and the National Institutes of Health (CA78590). We thank the Cell Analysis Facility at the University of Nebraska Medical Center for FACS analyses.
- 2.Mimeault, M., and Batra, S. K. (2008) Stem cell applications in disease research: Recent advances on stem cell and cancer stem cell biology and their therapeutic implications. In Progress in Stem Cell Applications, eds. Faraday, A. V., and Dyer, J. T., Hauppauge, NY: NOVA Science.Google Scholar
- 19.Mimeault, M., and Batra, S. K. (2008) Critical roles of tumorigenic and migrating cancer stem/progenitor cells in cancer progression and their therapeutic implications. In Stem Cells and Cancer, eds. Bagley, R. G., and Teicher, B. A., Totowa, NJ: HUMANA.Google Scholar
- 27.Ponti, D., Costa, A., Zaffaroni, N., Pratesi, G., Petrangolini, G., Coradini, D., Pilotti, S., Pierotti, M. A., and Daidone, M. G. (2005) Isolation and in vitro propagation of tumorigenic breast cancer cells with stem/progenitor cell properties. Cancer Res. 65, 5506–5511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Patrawala, L., Calhoun, T., Schneider-Broussard, R., Li, H., Bhatia, B., Tang, S., Reilly, J. G., Chandra, D., Zhou, J., Claypool, K., Coghlan, L., and Tang, D. G. (2006) Highly purified CD44+ prostate cancer cells from xenograft human tumors are enriched in tumorigenic and metastatic progenitor cells. Oncogene 25, 1696–1708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Prince, M. E., Sivanandan, R., Kaczorowski, A., Wolf, G. T., Kaplan, M. J., Dalerba, P., WeissmanI., L., Clarke, M. F., and Ailles, L. E. (2007) Identification of a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 973–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Maitland, N. J., Bryce, S. D., Stower, M. J., and Collins, A. T. (2006) Prostate cancer stem cells: A target for new therapies. Ernst Schering Found. Symp. Proc. 5, 155–179.Google Scholar
- 46.Szotek, P. P., Pieretti-Vanmarcke, R., Masiakos, P. T., Dinulescu, D. M., Connolly, D., Foster, R., Dombkowski, D., Preffer, F., Maclaughlin, D. T., and Donahoe, P. K. (2006) Ovarian cancer side population defines cells with stem cell-like characteristics and Mullerian inhibiting substance responsiveness. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 11154–11159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 51.Goodell, M. A., Rosenzweig, M., Kim, H., Marks, D. F., DeMaria, M., Paradis, G., Grupp, S. A., Sieff, C. A., Mulligan, R. C., and Johnson, R. P. (1997) Dye efflux studies suggest that hematopoietic stem cells expressing low or undetectable levels of CD34 antigen exist in multiple species. Nat. Med. 3, 1337–1345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 62.Kaighn, M. E., Narayan, K. S., Ohnuki, Y., Lechner, J. F., and Jones, L. W. (1079) Establishment and characterization of a human prostatic carcinoma cell line (PC-3). Invest. Urol. 17, 16–23.Google Scholar