Fusion Assays and Models for the Trophoblast
Part of the
Methods in Molecular Biology™
book series (MIMB, volume 475)
A healthy syncytium in the placenta is vital to a successful pregnancy. The trophoblast builds up the natural barrier between the mother and the developing fetus and is the site of gas, nutrition, and waste exchange. An inadequate formation of this tissue leads to several pathologies of pregnancy, which may result in fetal death during the second trimester or iatrogenic preterm delivery due to intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, or abruption.
Cytotrophoblastic cells fuse constantly with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast/syncytium to maintain the function of the trophoblast. Syncytin-1 is the only molecule known to directly induce fusion in the placental trophoblast. Many other proteins, such as gap junctions (e.g., connexin 40) and transcription factors, play a role in the molecular pathways directing the trophoblast turn over. Despite the significance of this process for successful placentation, the mechanisms regulating its activity remain poorly understood.
In this chapter we present several different model systems that can be utilized to investigate the regulation of the cell fusion process in the trophoblast. We describe cell-based assays as well as tissue-related protocols. We show how fusion can be monitored in (1) BeWo cells as a trophoblast cell line model, (2) HEK239 using syncytin-1 as a fusion molecule, and (3) a floating villi explant model. Furthermore, we will present strategies to inhibit fusion in the different models. These techniques represent powerful tools to study the molecular mediators of cell fusion in the trophoblast.
Key Words:Cell fusion; trophoblast; syncytiotrophoblast; fusion assay; syncytin-1.
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