In Vitro Analysis of Translation Enhancers

  • Aurélie M. Rakotondrafara
  • W. Allen Miller
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 451)


The genomes of many plant viruses contain translation-enhancing sequences that allow them to compete successfully with host messenger RNAs for the translation machinery. Identification of translation enhancer elements is valuable, both to gain understanding of virus gene expression control and to apply them as tools for engineering gene expression in plant cells. Here, we describe experiments designed to detect viral elements that enhance translation, focusing on cap-independent translation activity, using a high fidelity cell-free wheat germ translation extract.


Plant RNA viruses Translation enhancer Cap-independent translation In vitro translation Wheat germ extract Cap analogs Ribosome scanning Internal ribosome entry site 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aurélie M. Rakotondrafara
    • 1
  • W. Allen Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, Department of Plant PathologyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

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