Phloem pp 459-466 | Cite as

What Can Cell Culture Systems Reveal About Sieve Element Differentiation?

  • Masato Saito
  • Yuki KondoEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2014)


Tissue culture systems can be powerful tools for studying the process of cell differentiation in detail. Although a large number of cultures for xylem differentiation have been developed and utilized, there are only few reports on culture systems for ectopic phloem differentiation. Recently, a novel tissue culture system named Vascular cell Induction culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) was established, in which both xylem and phloem cells can be rapidly and efficiently induced in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter discusses the principle of VISUAL and how it can be used to investigate phloem differentiation, for example in combination with genetic experiments or transcriptome analysis. In addition, the protocol for establishing a phloem cell culture is provided.

Key words

Tissue culture Arabidopsis Cell differentiation Phloem Sieve element Transcriptome analysis 



We thank Dr. Yka Helariutta and Dr. Hiroo Fukuda for the kind support of our research. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (17H06476 to Y.K.), and from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (17H05008 to Y.K.).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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