Phloem pp 433-438 | Cite as

Analyzing and Predicting Phloem Mobility of Macromolecules with an Online Database

  • Daogang Guan
  • Yiji Xia
  • Shoudong ZhangEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2014)


Phloem, a specialized plant tissue, serves as a superhighway for macromolecular exchanges between different organs or tissues in plants. These mobile macromolecules may function as signaling molecules to sense intrinsic developmental cues or environmental inputs. Among these mobile molecules, RNAs generally need non-cell-autonomous pathway proteins (NCAPPs) to bind to and help them move along the symplasmic passage (through plasmodesmata) into the phloem stream. Grafting experiments combined with next-generation sequencing discovered that around 11.4% of identified Arabidopsis mobile mRNAs have a tRNA-like structure (TLS) motif. Adding an artificial tRNA-like structure at the 5′ end of cell-autonomous RNAs (e.g., GUS transcript) can trigger its mobility and movement across a grafting junction to distant organs. Based on the accumulated data and the role of the TLS motif in RNA mobility, we built a web server in our database PLaMoM (a database for plant mobile macromolecules) to enable plant biologists to predict and analyze the transcripts they are interested in. In this chapter, we describe how to use our built-in web server to investigate RNA mobility.

Key words

Phloem Mobile macromolecules Plasmodesmata TLS motif PLaMoM database Long-distance transport Systemic signaling 



This work was supported by funds from HKBU FRG2/16-17/026 and FRG2/15-16/006 and AoE/M-403/16.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chinese MedicineHong Kong Baptist UniversityHong KongChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Department of BiologyHong Kong Baptist UniversityHong KongChina
  3. 3.Centre for Soybean Research, Partner State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and School of Life SciencesThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina

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