Detecting Rapid Changes in Carbon Transport and Partitioning with Carbon-11 (11C)
- 578 Downloads
Noninvasive techniques to measure phloem transport of carbon will be crucial to efforts to engineer improved crop yields, which are highly dependent on carbon partitioning. Phloem, which is buried in the interior of the plant, is highly sensitive to tissue damage. Here we describe nondestructive methods using carbon-11, fed to leaves as 11CO2, as a tracer to track export of recently fixed carbon from leaves, transport speed through the phloem, and distribution or partitioning throughout the plant.
Key wordsPhotoassimilate transport Phloem Carbon-11 Whole-plant 11C partitioning Carbon allocation
Preparation of this manuscript was supported in part by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, McIntire Stennis project 1009319.
- 3.Ainsworth EA, Bush DR (2011) Carbohydrate export from the leaf: a highly regulated process and target to enhance photosynthesis and productivity. Plant Physiol 155:64–69. www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/doi/10.1104/pp.110.167684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Sulpice R, Pyl E-T, Ishihara H, Trenkamp S, Steinfath M, Witucka-Wall H, Gibon Y, Usadel B, Poree F, Piques MC, Von Korff M, Steinhauser MC, Keurentjes JJB, Guenther M, Hoehne M, Selbig J, Fernie AR, Altmann T, Stitt M (2009) Starch as a major integrator in the regulation of plant growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(25):10348–10353. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0903478106CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 8.Ferrieri AP, Agtuca B, Appel HM, Ferrieri RA, Schultz JC (2013) Temporal changes in allocation and partitioning of new carbon as 11C elicited by simulated herbivory suggest that roots shape aboveground responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 161(2):692–704. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.112.208868CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Karve A, Alexoff D, Kim D, Schueller M, Ferrieri R, Babst BA (2015) In vivo quantitative imaging of photoassimilate transport dynamics and allocation in large plants using a commercial positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. BMC Plant Biol 15(1):273. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-015-0658-3CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 12.Qu W, Robert CAM, Erb M, Hibbard BE, Paven M, Gleede T, Riehl B, Kersting L, Cankaya AS, Kunert AT, Xu Y, Schueller MJ, Shea C, Alexoff D, Lee SJ, Fowler JS, Ferrieri RA (2016) Dynamic precision phenotyping reveals mechanism of crop tolerance to root herbivory. Plant Physiol 172(2):776–788. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.00735CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 14.Ross-Elliott TJ, Jensen KH, Haaning KS, Wager BM, Knoblauch J, Howell AH, Mullendore DL, Monteith AG, Paultre D, Yan D, Otero-Perez S, Bourdon M, Sager R, Lee J-Y, Helariutta Y, Knoblauch M, Oparka KJ (2017) Phloem unloading in Arabidopsis roots is convective and regulated by the phloem-pole pericycle. eLife 6:e24125. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24125CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 16.Suwa R, Fujimaki S, Suzui N, Kawachi N, Ishii S, Sakamoto K, Nguyen NT, Saneoka H, Mohapatra PK, Moghaie RE, Matsuhashi S, Fujita K (2008) Use of positron-emitting tracer imaging system for measuring the effect of salinity on temporal and spatial distribution of 11C tracer and coupling between source and sink organs. Plant Sci 175:210–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.03.022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Alexoff DL, Dewey SL, Vaska P, Krishnamoorthy S, Ferrieri RA, Schueller MJ, Schlyer DJ, Fowler JS (2011) PET imaging of thin objects: measuring the effects of positron range and partial-volume averaging in the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum. Nucl Med Biol 38(2):191–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2010.08.004CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Ayre BG, Keller F, Turgeon R (2003) Symplastic continuity between companion cells and the translocation stream: long-distance transport is controlled by retention and retrieval mechanisms in the phloem. Plant Physiol 131(4):1518–1528. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.012054CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 19.Gould N, Thorpe MR, Pritchard J, Christeller JT, Williams LE, Roeb G, Schurr U, Minchin PEH (2012) AtSUC2 has a role for sucrose retrieval along the phloem pathway: Evidence from carbon-11 tracer studies. Plant Sci 188-189:97–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.12.018CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar