A Protocol to Study T-Cell Signaling in an Immune Synapse by Microscopy

  • Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe FazilEmail author
  • Pankaj Kumar
  • Navin Kumar Verma
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1930)


The immune synapse is a complex cellular structure that enables cell–cell communications between immune cells, mainly at the interface of an effector T-cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC) that expresses the appropriate peptide–MHC complexes. With progressive technological advances, there has been increasing interest in understanding molecular events that take place in motile T-lymphocytes at the immune synapse. Here, we provide an optimized method to induce the formation of an immune synapse between a T-cell and an APC in vitro. The experimental protocol described herein would be useful in characterizing the role of cell surface molecules and downstream signaling pathways in the context of cell-to-cell communications between T-cells and APCs.

Key words

T-cells B-cells Antigen-presenting cell Synapse 



The authors acknowledge funding support from the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University Singapore Start-Up Grant, the Ministry of Education (MOE) Singapore under its Singapore MOE Academic Research Fund (AcRF) Tier 2 Grant (MOE2017-T2-2-004) and the Industry Alignment Fund Pre-Positioning (IAF-PP) grant under the Wound Care Innovation for the Tropics IAF-PP Programme (H17/01/a0/0K9).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe Fazil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pankaj Kumar
    • 2
  • Navin Kumar Verma
    • 2
  1. 1.Lymphocyte Signalling Research Laboratory, Lee Kong Chain School of MedicineNanyang Technological University SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Lee Kong Chain School of MedicineNanyang Technological University SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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