Phytoplasmas pp 301-306 | Cite as

DAPI and Confocal Laser-Scanning Microscopy for In Vivo Imaging of Phytoplasmas

  • Rita MusettiEmail author
  • Stefanie Vera Buxa
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1875)


As phytoplasmas are located inside the phloem tissue, always surrounded by numerous layers of other cells, they can result difficult candidates for microscopical investigations. Moreover, the necessity to kill the plant tissues for microscopy observations causes instantaneous and irreversible modifications in the sieve elements, leading to misleading information and erroneous interpretations. Phytoplasmas were here investigated in intact Vicia faba host plants using DAPI as fluorescent probe and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The described nondestructive technique may be applied for the imaging of phytoplasmas and of different pathogen-related responses in planta.

Key words

Confocal laser scanning microscopy DAPI Phytoplasmas Vicia faba 



This work was funded with the support of the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) (grant number A/11/04104 for R. Musetti).

The authors are grateful to Elena Zaghini for drawing Fig. 2.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal SciencesUniversity of UdineUdineItaly
  2. 2.Centre for BioSystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Institute of PhytopathologyJustus Liebig University GiessenGiessenGermany

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