Patient-Derived Xenograft Models of Colorectal Cancer: Procedures for Engraftment and Propagation

  • Danielle M. Burgenske
  • David J. Monsma
  • Jeffrey P. MacKeigan
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1765)


Preclinical compounds tested in animal models often demonstrate limited efficacy when transitioned into patients. As a result, individuals are assigned to treatment regimens that may be ineffective at treating their disease. The development of more clinically relevant models, such as patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), will (1) more completely mimic the human condition and (2) more accurately predict tumor responses to previously untested therapeutics.

PDX models are clinically relevant as tumor tissue is implanted directly from human donor to the mouse recipient. Therefore, these models prevent cell population selection, intentional or unintentional, as the human tissue adapts to an in vitro, two-dimensional environment prior to implantation into a three-dimensional in vivo murine host. Often, cell heterogeneity and tumor architecture can be maintained from human to the PDX model in the mouse. This protocol describes the engraftment and propagation processes for establishing colorectal (CRC) PDX models in mice, using tumor tissue from human subjects.

Key words

Tumor heterogeneity Preclinical in vivo efficacy Drug screening Colorectal cancer Patient-derived xenograft Tumorgraft 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danielle M. Burgenske
    • 1
  • David J. Monsma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jeffrey P. MacKeigan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Cancer Cell Biology, Van Andel Research InstituteGrand RapidsUSA
  2. 2.College of Human MedicineMichigan State UniversityGrand RapidsUSA

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