Classification of Colorectal Cancer in Molecular Subtypes by Immunohistochemistry

  • Sanne ten Hoorn
  • Anne Trinh
  • Joan de Jong
  • Lianne Koens
  • Louis Vermeulen
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1765)


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease, which can be categorized into distinct consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs). These subtypes differ in both clinical as well as biological properties. The gold-standard classification strategy relies on genome-wide expression data, which hampers widespread implementation. Here we describe an immunohistochemical (IHC) Mini Classifier, a practical tool that, in combination with microsatellite instability testing, delivers objective and accurate scoring to classify CRC patients into the main molecular disease subtypes. It is a robust immunohistochemical-based assay containing four specific stainings (FRMD6, ZEB1, HTR2B, and CDX2) in combination with cytokeratin. We also describe an online tool for classification of individual samples based on scoring parameters of these stainings.

Key words

Colorectal cancer CRC Classification Consensus molecular subtypes CMS Immunohistochemistry IHC Online classification tool 



L.V. is supported by a KWF grant (UVA2014-7245), a Worldwide Cancer Research grant (14-1164), a Maag Lever Darm Stichting grant (MLDS-CDG 14-03), the European Research Council (ERG-StG 638193), The New York Stem Cell Foundation and a Vidi grant (917.15.308) from NWO. L.V. is also a New York Stem Cell Foundation – Robertson Investigator. 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanne ten Hoorn
    • 1
  • Anne Trinh
    • 2
    • 3
  • Joan de Jong
    • 1
  • Lianne Koens
    • 4
  • Louis Vermeulen
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology (LEXOR)Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine (CEMM), Academic Medical Center & Cancer Center AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing CentreCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Department of Medical OncologyDana-Farber Cancer InstituteBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of PathologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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