Histopathological Assessment for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

  • Alfred K. Lam
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1756)


In the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, adenocarcinoma of esophagus comprises preinvasive type (dysplasia), adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. For adenocarcinoma, it is important to determine the grading of the cancer and histological variants such as signet ring adenocarcinoma. In the current day management of esophageal adenocarcinoma by neoadjuvant therapy, the histology of the cancer and the lymph nodal status may change after the therapy. Tumor regression grading systems could be used to assess the response to the neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Key words

Esophagus Adenocarcinoma Mucoepidermoid carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Signet ring adenocarcinoma Neoadjuvant therapy Pathology 


  1. 1.
    Schneider JL, Corley DA (2015) A review of the epidemiology of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 29:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rice TW, Kelsen D, Blackstone E, Ishwaran H, Patil DT, Bass AJ, Erasmus JJ, Gerdes H, Hofstetter WL (2016) Esophagus and esophagogastric junction. In: Amin MB, Edge S, Greene F, Byrd DR, Brookland RK, Washington MK, Gershenwald JE, Compton CC, Hess KR, Sullivan DC, Jessup JM, Brierley JD, Gaspar LE, Schilsky RL, Balch CM, Winchester DP, Asare EA, Madera M, Gress DM, Meyer LR (eds) AJCC cancer staging manual, 8th edn. Springer, New York, pp 185–202. Chapter 16Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Batran SE, Lorenzen S (2017) Management of locally advanced gastresophageal cancer: still a multidisciplinary global challenge? Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 31:441–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hamilton SR, Bosman FT, Boffetta P, Ilyas M, Morreau H, Nakamura SI, Qurike P, Riboli E, Sobin LH (2010) Carcinoma of the colon and rectum. In: Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND (eds) WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system. IARC Press, Lyon, France, pp 134–146. ISBN-13 9789283224327Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tan WK, di Pietro M, Fitzgerald RC (2017) Past, present and future of Barrett’s esophagus. Eur J Surg Oncol 43:1148–1160CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gregson EM, Bornschein J, Fitzgerald RC (2016) Genetic progression of Barrett’s esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Br J Cancer 115:403–410CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Karaoglanoglu N, Eroglu A, Turkyilmaz A, Gursan N (2005) Esophageal adenoid cystic carcinoma and its management options. Int J Clin Pract 59:1101–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Petursson SR (1986) Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the esophagus: complete response to combination chemotherapy. Cancer 57:1464–1467CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhou Y, Zang Y, Xiang J, Tang F, Chen Z (2014) Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cardia: report of a rare case and review of the Chinese literature. Oncol Lett 8:726–730CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guo XF, Mao T, Gu ZT, Fang WT, Chen WH, Shao JC (2012) Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the esophagus: report of two cases and review of the Chinese literature. Diagn Pathol 7:179CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sawada G, Moon J, Saito A, Odagiri K, Kimura Y, Takahashi G, Yamashita S, Inoue M, Irei T, Nakahira S, Shimizu Y, Tominaga H, Kuraoka K, Taniyama K, Hatanaka N (2015) A case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the esophagus. Surg Case Rep 1:119CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fegelman E, Law SY, Fok M, Lam KY, Loke SL, Ma LT, Wong J (1994) Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with mucin-secreting component: mucoepidermoid carcinoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 107:62–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lam KY, Loke SL, Ma LT (1993) Histochemistry of mucin secreting components in mucoepidermoid and adenosquamous carcinoma of the esophagus. J Clin Pathol 46:1011–1015CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lam KY, Dickens P, Loke SL, Fok M, Ma L, Wong J (1994) Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with mucin-secreting component (muco-epidermoid carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma): a clinicopathologic study and a review of literature. Eur J Surg Oncol 20:25–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen S, Chen Y, Yang J, Yang W, Weng H, Li H, Liu D (2011) Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the esophagus. J Thorac Oncol 6:1426–1431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ni PZ, Yang YS, Hu WP, Wang WP, Yuan Y, Chen LQ (2016) Primary adenosquamous carcinoma of the esophagus: an analysis of 39 cases. J Thorac Dis 8:2689–2696CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    van der Kaaij RT, Snaebjornsson P, Voncken FE, van Dieren JM, Jansen EP, Sikorska K, Cats A, van Sandick JW (2017) The prognostic and potentially predictive value of the Laurén classification in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Eur J Cancer 76:27–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chirieac LR, Swisher SG, Correa AM, Ajani JA, Komaki RR, Rashid A, Hamilton SR, Wu TT (2005) Signet-ring cell or mucinous histology after preoperative chemoradiation and survival in patients with esophageal or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 11:2229–2236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Turner KO, Genta RM, Sonnenberg A (2015) Esophageal signet ring cell carcinoma as complication of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 42:1222–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Piessen G, Messager M, Lefevre JH, Goéré D, Mabrut JY, Meunier B, Brigand C, Hamy A, Glehen O, Mariette C, FREGAT Working Group—FRENCH (2014) Signet ring cell adenocarcinomas: different clinical-pathological characteristics of esophageal and gastric locations. Eur J Surg Oncol 40:1746–1755CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Enlow JM, Denlinger CE, Stroud MR, Ralston JS, Reed CE (2013) Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus with signet ring cell features portends a poor prognosis. Ann Thorac Surg 96:1927–1932CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nafteux PR, Lerut TE, Villeneuve PJ, Dhaenens JM, De Hertogh G, Moons J, Coosemans WJ, Van Veer HG, De Leyn PR (2014) Signet ring cells in esophageal and gastresophageal junction carcinomas have a more aggressive biological behavior. Ann Surg 260:1023–1029CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen L, Liu X, Gao L, Wang R, Gao D, Bai D (2017) The clinicopathological features and prognosis of signet ring cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a 10-year retrospective study in China. PLoS One 12:e0176637CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thies S, Langer R (2013) Tumor regression grading of gastrointestinal carcinomas after neoadjuvant treatment. Front Oncol 3:262CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Noble F, Nolan L, Bateman AC, Byrne JP, Kelly JJ, Bailey IS, Sharland DM, Rees CN, Iveson TJ, Underwood TJ, Bateman AR (2013) Refining pathological evaluation of neoadjuvant therapy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. World J Gastroenterol 19:9282–9293CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Karamitopoulou E, Thies S, Zlobec I, Ott K, Feith M, Slotta-Huspenina J, Lordick F, Becker K, Langer R (2014) Assessment of tumor regression of esophageal adenocarcinomas after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: comparison of 2 commonly used scoring approaches. Am J Surg Pathol 38:1551–1556CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cancer Molecular Pathology of School of MedicineGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia

Personalised recommendations