X-Ray Fluorescence-Detected Flow Cytometry

  • Andrew M. Crawford
  • James E. Penner-HahnEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1745)


X-ray fluorescence-detected flow cytometry can enable the detection and characterization of ultra-trace, trace, and bulk elemental content at the cellular level using synchrotron-induced x-ray emission from fully aquated actively respiring cells. Although very much still a technique in development, this technique has been used to characterize cell-to-cell elemental variability in bovine red blood cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Herein we describe the experimental setup and the key methodological aspects of data collection and processing.


Cytometer Cells Flow cytometer X-ray fluorescence Metallome 



This research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation under (NSF-IDBR-0852802 to J.E.P.H.) and used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiophysicsUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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