A New, Nondestructive, Split-Root System for Local and Systemic Plant Responses Studies with Soybean

  • Ángeles Hidalgo
  • José E. Ruiz-Sainz
  • José M. VinardellEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1734)


Plants use long-distance signaling mechanisms to coordinate their growth and control their interactions, positive or negative, with microbes. Split-root systems (SRS) have been used to study the relevance of both local and systemic plant mechanisms that participate in the control of rhizobia–legume symbioses. In this work we have developed a modification of the standard split-root system (SRS) used with soybean. This modified method, unlike previous systems, operates in hydroponics conditions and therefore is nondestructive and allows for the continuous monitoring of soybean roots throughout the whole experiment.

Key words

Soybean Split-root system Nodulation Autoregulation of nodulation Hydroponic culture 



This work was supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (BIO2011-30229) and the Andalusia Government (P07-CVI-07500).


  1. 1.
    López-Baena FJ, Ruiz-Sainz JE, Rodríguez-Carvajal MA, Vinardell JM (2016) Bacterial molecular signals in the Sinorhizobium fredii soybean symbiosis. Int J Mol Sci 17(5):755. pii: E755CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Djordjevic MA, Mohd-Radzman NA, Imin N (2015) Small-peptide signals that control root nodule number, development, and symbiosis. J Exp Bot 66:5171–5181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Larrainzar E, Gil-Quintana E, Arrese-Igor C et al (2014) Split-root systems applied to the study of the legume-rhizobial symbiosis: what have we learned? J Integr Plant Biol 56:1118–1124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ruiz-Sainz JE, Zhou JC, Rodriguez-Navarro DN et al (2005) Soybean cultivation and BNF in China. In: Werner D, Newton WE (eds) Nitrogen fixation in agriculture, forestry, ecology, and the environment. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kosslak RM, Bohlool BB (1985) Suppression of nodule development of one side of a split-root system of soybeans caused by prior inoculation of the other side. Plant Physiol 75:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gil-Quintana E, Larrainzar E, Seminario A et al (2013) Local inhibition of nitrogen fixation and nodule metabolism indrought-stressed soybean. J Exp Bot 64:2171–2182CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schaarschmidt S, Gresshoff PM, Hause B (2013) Analyzing the soybean transcriptome during autoregulation of mycorrhization identifies the transcription factors GmNF-YA1a/b as positive regulators of arbuscular mycorrhization. Genome Biol 14:R62CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vincent JM (1970) The modified Fåhraeus slide technique. Appendix III. In: Vincent JM (ed) A manual for the practical study of root nodule bacteria. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ángeles Hidalgo
    • 1
  • José E. Ruiz-Sainz
    • 1
  • José M. Vinardell
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of SevilleSevilleSpain

Personalised recommendations