Anesthesia and Monitoring of Animals During MRI Studies

  • Jordi L. TremoledaEmail author
  • Sven Macholl
  • Jane K. Sosabowski
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1718)


The use of imaging represents a major impact on the refinement and the reduction of in vivo studies in animal models, in particular for allowing longitudinal monitoring of the onset and the progression of disease within the same animal, and studying the biological effects of drug candidate and their therapeutic effectiveness. But the use of imaging procedures can affect animal physiology, and the need to anesthetize the animals for imaging entails potential health risks. During anesthesia, there is an inevitable autonomic nervous system depression which induces cardiovascular depression, respiratory depression, and hypothermia. Also other procedures associated with imaging such as animal preparation (e.g., fasting, premedication), blood sampling, and dosage/contrast agent injections can also affect physiology and animal welfare. All these factors are likely to have confounding effect on the outcome of the imaging studies and pose important concerns regarding the animal’s well-being, particularly when imaging immune deprived animals or diseased animals. We will discuss these challenges and considerations during imaging to maximize efficacious data while promoting animal welfare.

Key words

Anesthesia Physiological monitoring Animal welfare 3Rs 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordi L. Tremoleda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sven Macholl
    • 2
  • Jane K. Sosabowski
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Trauma Sciences, Blizard InstituteQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer InstituteQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK

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