Biomedical 19F MRI Using Perfluorocarbons
Background-free fluorine (19F) MR imaging exhibits an excellent degree of specificity, and facilitates among others the in vivo visualization of inflammatory processes. Merging19F MR images with morphologically matching1H MR images enables the exact anatomic localization of the observed19F signal. Biochemically inert nanoemulsions of perfluorocarbons, which are known to be taken up by the macrophage/monocyte system, are widely used as contrast agents for preclinical applications. Herein, the most common protocols are described to obtain high-resolution and artifact-free19F MR images even for compounds with complex19F MR spectra. In addition, we report on the utilization of perfluorocarbons with individual spectral identities and targeting approaches to specifically visualize thrombi by19F MRI.
Key wordsFluorine MRI Perfluorocarbons Sterol-based post-insertion Active targeting Chemical shift imaging
The authors would like to thank Prof. Jürgen Schrader (Düsseldorf) for his continuous support and encouragement as well as Prof. Rolf Schubert and Dr. Christoph Grapentin (Freiburg) for their enormous help in the development of the perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFCs). Furthermore, we would like to thank Prof. Cornelia Blume (Hannover) for providing us with the glomerulonephritis model. The work shown herein was supported financially by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the subproject Z2 of the SFB 612, subprojects B2 and B5 of the SFB 1116, and grants SCHR 154/13-1+2.
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