Erythropoiesis pp 193-203 | Cite as

Flow Cytometric Analysis of Erythroblast Enucleation

  • Xiuli An
  • Lixiang Chen
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1698)


Enucleation is the final step in mammalian erythropoiesis. In this process, the nucleus is extruded by budding off from the erythroblast, forming the reticulocyte. Herein, we describe the flow cytometry-based assays for enucleation assessment. The separation of nucleated erythroblasts, reticulocytes, and extruded nuclei by flow cytometry is based on DNA staining, surface expression of erythrocyte specific markers, or forward scatter (FSC). The enucleation of murine erythroblasts is assessed by the surface expression of murine erythrocyte marker Ter119 and DNA staining. Three discrete populations that represent nucleated erythroblasts, reticulocytes, and extruded nuclei are defined as HoechstmedTER119high, HoechstlowTER119high, and HoechsthighTER119med, respectively. Another nuclei acid staining dye, SYTO16, is used for the assessment of human enucleation in combination with FSC. For human cells, the three populations that represent nucleated erythroblasts, reticulocyte, and extruded nuclei are identified as FSChigh SYTO16+, FSChigh SYTO16, FSClowSYTO16+, respectively.

Key words

Enucleation Flow cytometry Glycophorin A Hoechst 33342 SYTO16 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Membrane BiologyNew York Blood CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.School of Life ScienceZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouP.R. China

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