Advertisement

Biodegradation and Inhibitory Effects of Antibiotics on Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems

  • Zeynep Cetecioglu
  • Merve Atasoy
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology book series (MIPT)

Abstract

Antibiotics are one of the most consumed drugs and have become new emerging pollutants in the environment as antibiotics lead to long-term adverse effects on the ecosystem. They are produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of other bacteria in nature as a defense mechanism. Furthermore, after discovering their therapeutical features, synthetic production methods were developed. In general, antibiotics are widely used in human medicine, veterinary medicine, farming and aquaculture for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Approximately 90% of the consumed antibiotics are excreted via urinary or fecal pathways from the human body after partial, or no metabolism, and they are transferred to the domestic sewage plants or directly to the environment. Conventional biological treatment of domestic sewage provides very low—if any—reduction for the antibiotics, which usually by-pass treatment and accumulate in the receiving waters, sediments, plants, and animals. The concentration of these materials in domestic wastewaters and surface waters is observed in a range between 0.3 μg/L and 150 μg/L. However, pharmaceutical plants, hospitals, concentrated animal feeding operations, and aquaculture generate effluents having much higher antibiotics concentrations in the range 100–500 mg/L. Consequently, it is essential to gather information on the fate and effect of these compounds at high concentrations for setting the basis for related practical treatment schemes.

Inhibitory action of the antibiotics is experimentally evaluated in two different approaches: Short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) tests: Acute experiments involve a microbial community selected and sustained by the selected organic substrate in the system and not previously exposed to the inhibitor. In long-term experiments with continuous feeding of the inhibitor, the test may reflect, aside from changes in substrate removal and utilization, adaptation and/or resistance of the microbial community or even shifts in microbial composition in response to continuous exposure to the selected inhibitor. However, a full insight on the inhibitory action can only be acquired when the response of the microbial community is tested for both acute and chronic inhibition impacts.

In this chapter, the most commonly used antibiotic classes such as β-lactams, tetracycline, macrolides, sulfonamides, quinolones are examined. Their fate and transformation during wastewater treatment as well as their inhibitory and toxic effects on the microbial community are discussed by using various toxicity and inhibition tests.

Key words

Antibiotics Biodegradation Inhibition Toxicity Biodegradability Wastewater treatment 

References

  1. 1.
    Kümmerer K (2013) Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: sources, fate, effects and risks. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kümmerer K (2009) Antibiotics in the aquatic environment--a review--part I. Chemosphere 75(4):417–434. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.11.086 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Homem V, Santos L (2011) Degradation and removal methods of antibiotics from aqueous matrices – a review. J Environ Manag 92(10):2304–2347. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Center for Disease Dynamics EP (2015) State of the world’s antibiotics, 2015. Center for Disease Dynamics EP, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Michael I, Rizzo L, McArdell CS, Manaia CM, Merlin C, Schwartz T, Dagot C, Fatta-Kassinos D (2013) Urban wastewater treatment plants as hotspots for the release of antibiotics in the environment: a review. Water Res 47(3):957–995. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.11.027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rizzo L, Manaia C, Merlin C, Schwartz T, Dagot C, Ploy MC, Michael I, Fatta-Kassinos D (2013) Urban wastewater treatment plants as hotspots for antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes spread into the environment: a review. Sci Total Environ 447:345–360. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.032 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Petrovic M, Pérez S, Barcelo D (2013) Conclusions and future research needs. In: Comprehensive analytical chemistry, vol 62. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 705–718. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-444-62657-8.00021-5 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heberer T (2002) Occurrence, fate, and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment: a review of recent research data. Toxicol Lett 131:5–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marti E, Balcázar JL (2013) Antibiotic resistance in the aquatic environment. In: Comprehensive analytical chemistry, vol 62. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 671–684. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-444-62657-8.00019-7 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carvalho IT, Santos L (2016) Antibiotics in the aquatic environments: a review of the European scenario. Environ Int 94:736–757. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.06.025 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Manzetti S, Ghisi R (2014) The environmental release and fate of antibiotics. Mar Pollut Bull 79(1–2):7–15. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.01.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2013) Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    European Medicines Agency (EMA) and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) (2009) The bacterial challenge: time to react a call to narrow the gap between multidrug-resistant bacteria in the EU and development of new antibacterial agents. European Medicines Agency (EMA) and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aga DS (2007) Fate of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment and in water treatment systems. CRC, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schmidt S, Winter J, Gallert C (2012) Long-term effects of antibiotics on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand, nitrification, and viable bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 63(3):354–364. doi: 10.1007/s00244-012-9773-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kümmerer K (2003) Significance of antibiotics in the environment. J Antimicrob Chemother 52(1):5–7. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkg293 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gruiz K, Molnár M (2015) Engineering tools for environmental risk management. In: Environmental toxicology, 2nd edn. CRC, Boca Raton. doi: 10.1201/b18181-5 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lisa N, Taylor RPS (2013) Biological test methods. Encyclopedia of aquatic ecotoxicology. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cetecioglu Z, Ince B, Azman S, Gokcek N, Coskun N, Ince O (2013) Determination of anaerobic and anoxic biodegradation capacity of sulfamethoxasole and the effects on mixed microbial culture. InTech, Croatia. doi: 10.5772/56049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Joss A, Zabczynski S, Gobel A, Hoffmann B, Loffler D, McArdell CS, Ternes TA, Thomsen A, Siegrist H (2006) Biological degradation of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater treatment: proposing a classification scheme. Water Res 40(8):1686–1696. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.02.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nikinmaa M (2014) Chapter 1 – introduction: what is aquatic toxicology? In: An introduction to aquatic toxicology, 1st edn. Academic, Cambridge, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Valera E, Babington R, Broto M, Petanas S, Galve R, Marco M-P (2013) Application of bioassays/biosensors for the analysis of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. In: Comprehensive analytical chemistry, vol 62. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 195–229. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-444-62657-8.00007-0 Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alexy R, Kumpel T, Kummerer K (2004) Assessment of degradation of 18 antibiotics in the closed bottle test. Chemosphere 57(6):505–512. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.06.024 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kummerer K (2009) Antibiotics in the aquatic environment – a review – part II. Chemosphere 75(4):435–441. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.12.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zorita SLM, Mathiasson L (2009) Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in a municipal sewage treatment system in the South of Sweden. Sci Total Environ 407(8):2760–2770CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ong SK, Lertpaitoonpan W, Bhandari A, Limpiyakorn T (2009) Chapter 5 antimicrobials and antibiotics. Contaminants of emerging environmental concern. Edited by Alok Bhandari, Rao Y. Surampalli, Craig D. Adams, Pascale Champagne, Say Kee Ong, R. D. Tyagi, and Tian Zhang. ASCE.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Michael I, Frontistis Z, Fatta-Kassinos D (2013) Removal of pharmaceuticals from environmentally relevant matrices by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In: Comprehensive analytical chemistry, vol 62. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 345–407. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-444-62657-8.00011-2 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bouki C, Venieri D, Diamadopoulos E (2013) Detection and fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 91:1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.01.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marx C, Gunther N, Schubert S, Oertel R, Ahnert M, Krebs P, Kuehn V (2015) Mass flow of antibiotics in a wastewater treatment plant focusing on removal variations due to operational parameters. Sci Total Environ 538:779–788. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.112 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cetecioglu Z, Ince B, Orhon D, Ince O (2011) Acute inhibitory impact of antimicrobials on acetoclastic methanogenic activity. Bioresour Technol 114:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gartiser S, Urich E, Alexy R, Kummerer K (2007) Anaerobic inhibition and biodegradation of antibiotics in ISO test schemes. Chemosphere 66(10):1839–1848. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.08.040 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang T, Li B (2011) Occurrence, transformation, and fate of antibiotics in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 41(11):951–998. doi: 10.1080/10643380903392692 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cetecioglu Z (2014) Aerobic inhibition assessment for anaerobic treatment effluent of antibiotic production wastewater. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 21(4):2856–2864. doi: 10.1007/s11356-013-2243-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kim S, Weber AS, Batt A, Aga DS (2008) Removal of pharmaceuticals in biological wastewater treatment plants. In: Fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment and in biological wastewater treatment systems. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ahmed MB, Zhou JL, Ngo HH, Guo W (2015) Adsorptive removal of antibiotics from water and wastewater: progress and challenges. Sci Total Environ 532:112–126. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.130 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Adams C, Asce M, Wang Y, Loftin K, Meyer M (2002) Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes. J Environ Eng 128:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Westerhoff P, Yoon Y, Snyder S, Wert E (2005) Fate of endocrine-disruptor, pharmaceutical, and personal care product chemicals during simulated drinking water treatment processes. Environ Sci Technol 39:6649–6663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Putra EK, Pranowo R, Sunarso J, Indraswati N, Ismadji S (2009) Performance of activated carbon and bentonite for adsorption of amoxicillin from wastewater: mechanisms, isotherms and kinetics. Water Res 43:2419–2430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Huber MM, Göbel A, Joss A, Hermann N, Loffler D, McArdell CS, Ried A, Siegrist H, Ternes TA, von Gunten U (2005) Oxidation of pharmaceuticals during ozonation of municipal wastewater effluents: a pilot study. Environ Sci Technol 39:4290–4299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dodd MC, Buffle M, von Gunten U (2006) Oxidation of antibiotic molecules by aqueous ozone: moiety-specific reaction kinetics and application to ozone-based wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Technol 40:1969–1977CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hollender J, Zimmermann SG, Koepke S, Krauss M, McArdell CS, Ort C, Singer H, von Gunten U, Siegrist H (2009) Elimination of organic micropollutants in a municipal wastewater treatment plant upgraded with a full-scale postozonation followed by sand filtration. Environ Sci Technol 43:7862–7869CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    John Strelow WD, Iversen PW, Brooks HB, Radding JA, McGee J, Weidner J (2004) Mechanism of action assays for enzymes. In: Assay guidance manual. Eli Lilly & Company and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cooney JD (1995) Effects – toxicity testing, fundamentals of aquatic toxicology: effects, environmental fate and risk assessment, 2nd edn. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gruiz K (2015) Engineering tools for environmental risk management. In: Katalin Gruiz TM, Fenyvesi E (eds) Environmental toxicology. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 1–69Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Poupin P (2013) Biodegradability in ecotoxicology. In: Férard J-F, Blaise C (eds) Encyclopedia of aquatic ecotoxicology. Springer, Dordrecht. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-5704-2 Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    EPA U (1994) ECO update using toxicity tests in ecological risk assessment. Intermittent Bulletin 2(1)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    OECD (2000) Series on testing and assessment Number 23 Guidance document on aquatic toxicity testing of difficult substances and mixtures, ParisGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Moody L, Burns R, Wu-haan W, Spajic R (2009) Use of biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays for predicting and enhancing anaerobic digester performance. Paper presented at the proceedings of the 44th Croatian and the 4th international symposium on agriculture, Opatija, Croatia, 16–20 February 2009Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gartiser S, Urich E, Alexy R, Kummerer K (2007) Ultimate biodegradation and elimination of antibiotics in inherent tests. Chemosphere 67(3):604–613. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.08.038 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Watkinson AJ, Murby EJ, Costanzo SD (2007) Removal of antibiotics in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment: implications for environmental discharge and wastewater recycling. Water Res 41(18):4164–4176. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.04.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Le-Minh N, Khan SJ, Drewes JE, Stuetz RM (2010) Fate of antibiotics during municipal water recycling treatment processes. Water Res 44(15):4295–4323. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jeong J, Song W, Cooper WJ, Jung J, Greaves J (2010) Degradation of tetracycline antibiotics: mechanisms and kinetic studies for advanced oxidation/reduction processes. Chemosphere 78(5):533–540. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.11.024 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Matos M, Pereira MA, Parpot P, Brito AG, Nogueira R (2014) Influence of tetracycline on the microbial community composition and activity of nitrifying biofilms. Chemosphere 117:295–302. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.06.094 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tolls J (2001) Sorption of veterinary pharmaceuticals in soils: a review. Environ Sci Technol 35(17):3397–3406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lindberg RH, Wennberg P, Johansson MI, Tysklind M, Andersson BAV (2005) Screening of human antibiotic substances and determination of weekly mass flows in five sewage treatment plants in Sweden. Environ Sci Technol 39(10):3421–3429CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Batt AL, Kim S, Aga DS (2007) Comparison of the occurrence of antibiotics in four full-scale wastewater treatment plants with varying designs and operations. Chemosphere 68(3):428–435. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.01.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kim S, Eichhorn P, Jensen JN, Weber AS, Aga DS (2005) Removal of antibiotics in wastewater: effect of hydraulic and solid retention times on the fate of tetracycline in the activated sludge process. Environ Sci Technol 39(15):5816–5823CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cetecioglu Z, Ince B, Gros M, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Barcelo D, Orhon D, Ince O (2013) Chronic impact of tetracycline on the biodegradation of an organic substrate mixture under anaerobic conditions. Water Res 47:2959–2969CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Prescott JJ, Baggot DJ (1993) Antimicrobial therapy in veterinary medicine. International Book Distributing Co, Uttar Pradesh, pp 564–565Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cetecioglu Z, Ince B, Ince O, Orhon D (2015) Acute effect of erythromycin on metabolic transformations of volatile fatty acid mixture under anaerobic conditions. Chemosphere 124:129–135. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.12.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zhang H, Liu P, Feng Y, Yang F (2013) Fate of antibiotics during wastewater treatment and antibiotic distribution in the effluent-receiving waters of the Yellow Sea, Northern China. Mar Pollut Bull 73(1):282–290. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.05.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Peng X, Wang Z, Kuang W, Li K (2006) A preliminary study on the occurrence and behavior of sulfonamides, Ofloxacin and chloramphenicol antimicrobials in wastewaters of two sewage treatment plants in Guangzhou, China. Sci Total Environ 371(1–3):314–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Göbel A, Thomsen A, McArdell CS, Alder AC, Giger W, Theiss N, Löffler D, Ternes TA (2005) Extraction and determination of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in sewage sludge. J Chromatogr A 1085(2):179–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Boxall ABA, Blackwell P, Cavallo R, Kay P, Tolls J (2002) The sorption and transport of a sulphonamides antibiotic in soil systems. Toxicol Lett 131:19–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Aguirre-Martinez GV, Owuor MA, Garrido-Perez C, Salamanca MJ, Del Valls TA, Martin-Diaz ML (2015) Are standard tests sensitive enough to evaluate effects of human pharmaceuticals in aquatic biota? Facing changes in research approaches when performing risk assessment of drugs. Chemosphere 120:75–85. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.087 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ben WQZ, Yin X, Qu J, Pan X (2014) Adsorption behavior of sulfamethazine in an activated sludge process treating swine wastewater. J Environ Sci (China) 26:1623–1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cetecioglu Z, Ince B, Gros M, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Barcelo D, Ince O, Orhon D (2015) Biodegradation and reversible inhibitory impact of sulfamethoxazole on the utilization of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewater. Sci Total Environ 536:667–674. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.139 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cetecioglu Z, Ince B, Orhon D, Ince O (2016) Anaerobic sulfamethoxazole degradation is driven by homoacetogenesis coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Water Res 90:79–89. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.12.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Golet EM, Alder AC, Giger W (2002) Environmental exposure and risk assessment of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents in wastewater and river water of the Glatt Valley Watershed, Switzerland. Environ Sci Technol 36(17):3645–3651CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Golet EM, Xifra I, Siegrist H, Alder AC, Giger W (2003) Environmental exposure assessment of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents from sewage to soil. Environ Sci Technol 37(15):3243–3249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringKTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations