Advertisement

Evaluation of the Toxicity of Azo Dyes by Allium cepa and Study to Remove These Compounds in Aqueous Solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Érica Janaina Rodrigues de Almeida
  • Guilherme Dilarri
  • Carlos Renato Corso
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology book series (MIPT)

Abstract

Textile industries are among the largest consumers of synthetic azo dyes. The effluents generated by them, especially during the dyeing stage of tissues, present high staining and concentration of organic loads. The disposal of azo dyes in the environment represents one of the main environmental problems, due to its high pollution potential. The recalcitrance from these compounds is due to the complexity of their molecular structures, which have a large number of aromatic rings, azo bonds, amines, amides, phenolic, and sulfonic groups. Their degradation is difficult and harmful to the organisms exposed to them. Several types of research aim to find treatments that are able to reduce the concentration of these compounds and, consequently, the metabolites that are generated from their degradation. Those treatments can often become more toxic than the initial molecule. Among these treatments, biological treatment has a prominent place because they present good efficiency and lower costs for its implantation. Thus, this paper aimed to study the toxicity of the synthetic azo dyes Acid Orange 7 and Direct Violet 51 using as test organism bulbs of Allium cepa. The toxicity of these compounds was evaluated before and after degradation treatment with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the main concerns of the study was to use simple methods of analysis, so bulbs of A. cepa were chosen to evaluate the toxicity, and yeast S. cerevisiae to carry out the process of decolorization.

Key words

Acid Orange 7 Direct violet 51 Allium cepa Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Support from FAPESP Process 2009/07996-9—Brazil, CNPq—Brazil, CAPES—Brasil and Fundunesp—Brazil.

References

  1. 1.
    Mahmoud MS, Mostafa MK, Mohamed SA, Sobhy NA, Nasr M (2017) Bioremediation of red azo dye from aqueous solutions by Aspergillus niger strain isolated from textile wastewater. J Environ Chem Eng 5:547–554. doi: 10.1016/j.jece.2016.12.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almeida EJR, Corso CR (2014) Comparative study of toxicity of azo dye Procion Red MX-5B following biosorption and biodegradation treatments with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. Chemosphere 112:317–322. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.060 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dilarri G, Almeida EJR, Pecora HB, Corso CR (2016) Removal of dye toxicity from an aqueous solution using na industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Meyen). Water Air Soil Pollut 227:1–11. doi: 10.1007/s11270-016-2973-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Larouk S, Ouargli R, Shahidi A, Olhund L, Shiao TC, Chergui N, Sehili T, Roy R, Azzouz A (2017) Catalytic ozonation of Orange-G through highly interactive contributions of hematite and SBA-16 – to better understanding azo dye oxidation in nature. Chemosphere 168:1648–1657. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.11.120 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Almeida EJR, Corso CR (2016) Acid blue 161: decolorization and toxicity analysis after microbiological treatment (2016). Water Air Soil Pollut 468:1–8. doi: 10.1007/s11270-016-3042-5 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fiskesjö G (1985) The allium test as a standard in environmental monitoring. Hereditas 102:99–112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Glenn JK, Gold MH (1983) Decolorization of several polymeric dyes by the lignin degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol 45:1741–1747. 0099-2240/83/061741-07$02.00/0PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Bioresour Technol 97:1061–1085. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2005.05.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Silverstein RM, Bassler GC, Morrill TC (2006) Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds, 6rd. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coates J (2000) Interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vijayalakshmidevi SR, Muthukumar K (2015) Improved biodegradation of textile dye efluente by coculture. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 114:23–30. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.09.039 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jain RM, Mody KH, Keshri J, Jha B (2014) Biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes alkaline textile industry wastewater. Mar Pollut Bull 84:83–89. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.05.033 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gao JF, Zhang Q, Su K, Wang JH (2010) Competitive biosorption of yellow 2G and reactive brilliant red K-2G onto inactive aerobic granules: simultaneous determination of two dyes by first-order derivate spectrophotometry and isotherm studies. Bioresour Technol 101:5793–5801. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.091 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jadhav UU, Dawkar VV, Ghodake GS, Govindwar SP (2008) Biodegradation of direct red 5B, a textile dye by newly isolated Comamonas sp. J Hazard Mater 158:507–516. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.099 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Olukanni OD, Osuntoki AA, Kalyani DC, Gbenle GO, Govindwar SP (2010) Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive blue 13 by Proteous mirabilis LAG. J Hazard Mater 184:290–298. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.08.035 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Érica Janaina Rodrigues de Almeida
    • 1
  • Guilherme Dilarri
    • 1
  • Carlos Renato Corso
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and MicrobiologyInstitute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP)Rio ClaroBrazil

Personalised recommendations