Advertisement

Molecular Subtype Profiling of Urothelial Carcinoma Using a Subtype-Specific Immunohistochemistry Panel

  • Gottfrid SjödahlEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1655)

Abstract

Molecular subtypes of bladder cancer (BC) can be determined by relatively small immunohistochemistry panels both for non-muscle invasive (NMI) and muscle invasive (MI) tumors. For analysis of NMI tumors, as few as two markers are needed, although classification is dependent also on pathological grade and histological evaluation. The result is a classification into the three tumor-cell phenotypes of NMI-BC, Urothelial-like (Uro), Genomically Unstable (GU), and Basal/SCC-like. For analysis of MI tumors, 13 markers are needed. The larger number of markers required for the classification of MI-BC reflects the inclusion of two additional phenotypes exclusively found in invasive tumors; Mesenchymal-like (Mes-like) and Small-cell/Neuroendocrine-like (Sc/NE-like). Here follows a description of how to perform and approach IHC-based subtype classification of bladder cancer.

Key words

Bladder cancer Urothelial carcinoma Molecular subtypes Phenotype Classification Urothelial-like Genomically unstable Basal/SCC-like Mesenchymal-like Small-cell/neuroendocrine-like 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The development of this method would not have been possible without the expertise of Kristina Lövgren in tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry techniques.

References

  1. 1.
    Sjödahl G, Lövgren K, Lauss M et al (2013) Toward a molecular pathologic classification of urothelial carcinoma. Am J Pathol 183:681–691CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Patschan O, Sjödahl G, Chebil G (2015) A molecular pathologic framework for risk stratification of stage T1 urothelial carcinoma. Eur Urol 68:824–832CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sjödahl G, Lauss M, Lövgren K et al (2012) A molecular taxonomy for urothelial carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 18:3377–3386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Choi W, Porten S, Kim S (2014) Identification of distinct basal and luminal subtypes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer with different sensitivities to frontline chemotherapy. Cancer Cell 25:152–165CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Damrauer JS, Hoadley KA, Chism DD (2014) Intrinsic subtypes of high-grade bladder cancer reflect the hallmarks of breast cancer biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:3110–3115CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (2014) Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma. Nature 507:315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sjödahl G, Eriksson P, Liedberg F, Höglund M (2017) Molecular classification of urothelial carcinoma: global mRNA classification versus tumour-cell phenotype classification. J Pathol 242(1):113–125CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Urological Research, Department of Translational MedicineLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations