In Vitro Differentiation and Propagation of Urothelium from Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines
Bioengineering of bladder tissue, particularly for those patients who have advanced bladder disease, requires a source of urothelium that is healthy, capable of significant proliferation in vitro and immunologically tolerated upon transplant. As pluripotent stem cells have the potential to fulfill such criteria, they provide a critical cell source from which urothelium might be derived in vitro and used clinically. Herein, we describe the in vitro differentiation of urothelium from the H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line through the definitive endoderm (DE) phase via selective culture techniques. The protocol can be used to derive urothelium from other hESCs or human-induced pluripotent stem cells.
Key wordsInduced pluripotent stem cells Human embryonic stem cells Urothelium Bladder bioengineering Definitive endoderm Activin A Uroplakins
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