Here, we describe the use of complementary techniques applicable to different types of samples to analyze chromosomal alterations in urothelial carcinoma. By a conventional chromosome analysis on fresh biopsies, it is possible to delineate the status of ploidy and rough chromosomal aberrations. The multi-target fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) UroVysion test, for the rapid detection of chromosomal aneusomy of chromosomes 3, 7, and 17 and/or deletion of 9p21 locus, is applicable to urine specimens as well as to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens and fresh biopsies. Finally, array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) gives the possibility of analyzing the DNA in a single experiment from a biopsy of the tumor but also from FFPE specimens; this technique is able to detect alterations at the genome level not excluding any chromosome.
Urothelial carcinoma Chromosome aberrations Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) UroVysion test Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) DNA copy number variations Urine specimens Fresh biopsies Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens
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The authors want to gratefully acknowledge Professor Leda Dalprà for her help in revising the manuscript. This work was supported by Gianluca Strada Association for research and treatment of urological cancer.
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