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Microbiota and Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Mediators

  • Marlene RemelyEmail author
  • Heidrun Karlic
  • Irene Rebhan
  • Martina Greunz
  • Alexander G. Haslberger
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Part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology book series (MIPT)

Abstract

Bacteria and bacterial derived metabolites are known to influence the host epigenetic regulation patterns such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, thus altering the expression of critical genes in pathologic processes, for example in metabolic syndrome. Fermentation end products, especially butyrate and LPS (lipopolysaccharides), the latter being cell-wall components of gram-negative bacteria, have been suggested as bioactive metabolites influencing epigenetic modifications by directly influencing enzymes catalyzing epigenetic modifications, by altering the availability of substrates, or by interactions with receptors. Thus, identification and quantification of gut microbiota via molecular based methods are of importance to address different epigenetic patterns and gene expression. We discuss methods for microbiota, epigenetic methylation, and expression analysis of our own research which will have a role in future studies.

Key words

Microbiota and microbial epigenetic active products Quantification of DNA and RNA Gene expression analysis Methylation analysis Omics 

Abbreviations

AMV

Avian myeloblastosis virus

APS

Ammonium persulfate solution

BGS

Bisulfite genomic sequencing

cDNA

Complementary DNA

DGGE

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

DNMT1

DNA-methyltransferase 1

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

FRAR3

Free fatty acid receptor 3

FRET

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer

HDACs

Histone deacetylases

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

5mC

5-methylcytosine

MeDIP

Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation

MMLV

Moloney murine leukemia virus

MSRE

Methylation sensitive restriction enzyme

NF-kB

Nuclease factor kB

PTM

Posttranslational modification

qPCR

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction

RT

Reverse transcription

SCFAs

Short chain fatty acids

SEM

Structural equation modelling

TE buffer

Tris-EDTA buffer

TEMED

N,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine

TLR

Toll-like receptor

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marlene Remely
    • 1
    Email author
  • Heidrun Karlic
    • 2
  • Irene Rebhan
    • 1
  • Martina Greunz
    • 1
  • Alexander G. Haslberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Leukemia Research and HematologyViennaAustria

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