The first signaling peptide discovered and purified was insulin in 1921. However, it was not until 1991 that the first peptide signal, systemin, was discovered in plants. Since the discovery of systemin, peptides have emerged as a potent and diverse class of signaling molecules in plant systems. Peptides consist of small amino acid sequences, which often act as ligands of receptor kinases. However, not all peptides are created equal, and signaling peptides are grouped into several subgroups dependent on the type of post-translational processing they undergo. Here, we focus on the application of synthetic, post-translationally modified peptides (PTMPs) to plant systems, describing several methods appropriate for the use of peptides in Arabidopsis thaliana and crop models.
Post-translationally modified peptide Synthetic peptide ArabidopsisCereal crops In vitro growth
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more
Czyzewicz N, Yue K, Beeckman T et al (2013) Message in a bottle: small signalling peptide outputs during growth and development. J Exp Bot 64(17):5281–5296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Tavormina P, De Coninck B, Nikonorova N et al (2015) The plant peptidome: an expanding repertoire of structural features and biological functions. Plant Cell 27(8):2095–2118CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Petraglia F, Florio P, Nappi C et al (2013) Peptide signaling in human placenta and membranes: autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine mechanisms. Endocr Rev 17(2):156–186Google Scholar
Reid D, Li D, Ferguson B et al (2013) Structure–function analysis of the GmRIC1 signal peptide and CLE domain required for nodulation control in soybean. J Exp Bot 64(6):1575–1585CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Shinohara H, Matsubayashi Y (2013) Chemical synthesis of Arabidopsis CLV3 glycopeptide reveals the impact of hydroxyproline arabinosylation on peptide conformation and activity. Plant Cell Physiol 54(3):369–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Czyzewicz N, Shi CL, Vu LD et al (2015) Modulation of Arabidopsis and monocot root architecture by CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION 26 peptide. J Exp Bot 66(17):5229–5243CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Qi Z, Verma R, Gehring C et al (2010) Ca2+ signaling by plant Arabidopsis thaliana Pep peptides depends on AtPepR1, a receptor with guanylyl cyclase activity, and cGMP-activated Ca2+ channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(49):21193–21198CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Xu T, Ren S, Song X et al (2015) CLE19 expressed in the embryo regulates both cotyledon establishment and endosperm development in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 66(17):5217–5227CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Mueller K, Chinchilla D, Albert M et al (2012) Contamination risks in work with synthetic peptides: flg22 as an example of a pirate in commercial peptide preparations. Plant Cell 24(8):3193–3197CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar