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Memory/Learning, Dementia, and Kampo

  • Kinzo MatsumotoEmail author
  • Hironori Fujiwara
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology book series (MIPT)

Abstract

Impairment of cognitive function and learning/memory is a core symptom of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and other forms of dementia. Because the number of dementia patients is increasing explosively as the world population is growing and aging, a lot of effort have been made to develop innovative drugs to overcome dementia; however, it has not succeeded yet. On the other hand, a potential usefulness of Kampo medicines for the treatment of cognitive deficits of patients with dementia has been suggested by clinical and/or preclinical studies reported during the last two decades. Those are yokukansan (YKS), chotosan, kihi-to, and kami-kihi-to (KKT), a “kihi-to”-based formula. Pharmacological and molecular biological evidence or chemical constituents, which may account for the antidementia effects of those Kampo medicines, have also been provided by lines of studies employing animal models of dementia or in vitro neurodegeneration models of dementia pathology. In this chapter, we discuss the clinical and preclinical effects of these Kampo medicines and their putative mechanisms of actions, which have been demonstrated by our own research and other laboratories.

Key words

Dementia Animal models Kampo therapy Yokukansan Chotosan Kihi-to (kami-kihi-to) Molecular mechanism 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for the 2012 and 2013 Cooperative Research Project I from the Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama and a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B), #25860075 (to H.F.) for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Medicinal Pharmacology, Department of Bioscience, Institute of Natural MedicineUniversity of ToyamaToyamaJapan

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