Extracellular α-Synuclein as a Target for Immunotherapy

  • Jun Sung Lee
  • Seung-Jae LeeEmail author
Part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology book series (MIPT)


Both genetic and pathological studies strongly suggest that α-synuclein is the main disease-causing molecule in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggests that α-synuclein, an intra-neuronal protein, is exocytosed from neurons and that extracellular α-synuclein could mediate the major pathological changes in PD, such as neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, and progressive spreading of protein inclusions. Here, we review the mechanism(s) involved in generation and clearance of extracellular α-synuclein and their pathophysiological implications in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. We also discuss extracellular α-synuclein as a therapeutic target for immunotherapy.

Key words

Parkinson’s disease Lewy body Alpha-synuclein Protein aggregation Microglia Aggregate clearance Lysosome 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Neuroscience Research InstituteSeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea

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