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Imaging as a Diagnostic Tool in Parkinson’s Disease

  • Johan WikströmEmail author
  • Torsten Danfors
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology book series (MIPT)

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging techniques are complementary methods to visualize biological changes on a morphological as well as a molecular level. Together they are useful tools to establish an early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to differentiate between PD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging has the advantage of having a superior spatial resolution and being more widely available. The method could support the diagnosis of PD by detecting volume loss in specific regions, e.g., substantia nigra (SN), but also by unraveling functional changes associated with PD, such as decreased activation of motor regions by motor activating tasks, decreased white matter integrity, and metabolic changes in certain brain regions. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emitted tomography (SPECT), can be used to detect dopamine deficiency, functional metabolic neuronal impairments and pathological accumulation of certain proteins in the nervous system. Similar to MRI, both PET and SPECT may also be used to aid in the differential diagnosis between Parkinson’s disease and other parkinsonian syndromes.

Key words

Magnetic resonance imaging MRI Parkinson’s disease Magnetic resonance spectroscopy Functional MRI Resting state functional MRI Diffusion weighted imaging Diffusion tensor imaging Magnetic transfer imaging PET SPECT Dopamine transporter PE2I FDG Amyloid Tau Alpha-synuclein 

Abbreviations

FDG

Fluorodeoxyglucose

PET

Positron emission tomography

DAT

Dopamine transporter

SPECT

Single photon emitted computed tomography

NPH

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

VASC

Vascular parkinsonism

MSA

Multiple system atrophy

PD

Parkinson’s disease

CBD

Corticobasal degeneration

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of RadiologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Section for Nuclear Medicine & PET, Department of Surgical SciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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