Advertisement

Run-Up and Run-Down

  • Nicholas GrazianeEmail author
  • Yan Dong
Protocol
Part of the Neuromethods book series (NM, volume 112)

Abstract

A burden associated with electrophysiology is potential artifacts that look like physiological events, but are instead mistakenly incorporated into the experimental recordings. Two such artifacts discussed in this chapter are current run-up and current run-down. Simply put, baseline responses increase (run-up) or decrease (run-down) over time. Membrane channels recorded using cell-attached, whole-cell, and excised-patch configurations are all susceptible to run-up/run-down. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss empirically derived causes of run-up and run-down so that both errors can be either identified or avoided before or during current measurements. Unfortunately, data showing causes and solutions to run-up and run-down in all membrane channels does not exist. However, we discuss receptors and cell types that have been studied for the purpose of keeping the experimenter aware of problem solving strategies during electrophysiological measurements.

Key words

GTP ATP Protein kinase Protein phosphatase pH Washout 

References

  1. 1.
    Mitchison T, Kirschner M (1984) Dynamic instability of microtubule growth. Nature 312(5991):237–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wagner JJ, Alger BE (1994) GTP modulates run-up of whole-cell Ca2+ channel current in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. J Neurophysiol 71:814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jia Z, Ikeda R, Ling J, Gu JG (2013) GTP-dependent run-up of Piezo2-type mechanically activated currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Mol Brain 6:57CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rorsman P, Trube G (1985) Glucose dependent K + -channels in pancreatic beta-cells are regulated by intracellular ATP. Pflugers Arch 405(4):305–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Trube G, Rorsman P, Ohno-Shosaku T (1986) Opposite effects of tolbutamide and diazoxide on the ATP-dependent K+ channel in mouse pancreatic beta-cells. Pflugers Arch 407(5):493–499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hall SK, Armstrong DL (2000) Conditional and Unconditional Inhibition of Calcium-activated Potassium Channels by Reversible Protein Phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 275(6):3749–3754CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Elhamdani A, Bossu J-L, Feltz A (1995) ATP and G proteins affect the runup of the Ca2+ current in bovine chromaffin cells. Pflugers Arch 430(3):410–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gu Y, Huang LY (1998) Cross-modulation of glycine-activated Cl- channels by protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the rat. J Physiol 506(Pt 2):331–339CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Song YM, Huang LY (1990) Modulation of glycine receptor chloride channels by cAMP-dependent protein kinase in spinal trigeminal neurons. Nature 348(6298):242–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jung CS, Lee SJ, Paik SS, Bai SH (2000) Run-up of gamma-aminobutyric acid(C) responses in catfish retinal cone-horizontal cell axon-terminals is modulated by protein kinase A and C. Neurosci Lett 282(1-2):53–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    del Corsso C, Iglesias R, Zoidl G, Dermietzel R, Spray DC (2012) Calmodulin dependent protein kinase increases conductance at gap junctions formed by the neuronal gap junction protein connexin36. Brain Res 1487:69–77CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mironov SL, Lux HD (1991) Calmodulin antagonists and protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid fasten the ‘run-up’ of high-voltage activated calcium current in rat hippocampal neurones. Neurosci Lett 133(2):175–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim Y, Bang H, Gnatenco C, Kim D (2001) Synergistic interaction and the role of C-terminus in the activation of TRAAK K+ channels by pressure, free fatty acids and alkali. Pflugers Arch 442(1):64–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gray AT, Buck LT, Feiner JR, Bickler PE (1997) Interactive effects of pH and temperature on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity in rat cortical brain slices. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 9(2):180–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Horn R, Marty A (1988) Muscarinic activation of ionic currents measured by a new whole-cell recording method. J Gen Physiol 92(2):145–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Armstrong D, Eckert R (1987) Voltage-activated calcium channels that must be phosphorylated to respond to membrane depolarization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84(8):2518–2522CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Becq F (1996) Ionic channel rundown in excised membrane patches. Biochim Biophys Acta 1286(1):53–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chad J, Kalman D, Armstrong D (1987) The role of cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation in the maintenance and modulation of voltage-activated calcium channels. Soc Gen Physiol Ser 42:167–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Horn R, Korn SJ (1992) Prevention of rundown in electrophysiological recording. Methods Enzymol 207:149–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hoshi T (1995) Regulation of voltage dependence of the KAT1 channel by intracellular factors. J Gen Physiol 105(3):309–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tang XD, Hoshi T (1999) Rundown of the hyperpolarization-activated KAT1 channel involves slowing of the opening transitions regulated by phosphorylation. Biophys J 76(6):3089–3098CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Korn SJ, Horn R (1989) Influence of sodium-calcium exchange on calcium current rundown and the duration of calcium-dependent chloride currents in pituitary cells, studied with whole cell and perforated patch recording. J Gen Physiol 94(5):789–812CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Forscher P, Oxford GS (1985) Modulation of calcium channels by norepinephrine in internally dialyzed avian sensory neurons. J Gen Physiol 85(5):743–763CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rosenmund C, Carr DW, Bergeson SE, Nilaver G, Scott JD, Westbrook GL (1994) Anchoring of protein kinase A is required for modulation of AMPA/kainate receptors on hippocampal neurons. Nature 368(6474):853–856CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tavalin SJ, Colledge M, Hell JW, Langeberg LK, Huganir RL, Scott JD (2002) Regulation of GluR1 by the A-kinase anchoring protein 79 (AKAP79) signaling complex shares properties with long-term depression. J Neurosci 22(8):3044–3051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bielefeldt K, Jackson MB (1994) Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation modulate a Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel in rat peptidergic nerve terminals. J Physiol 475(2):241–254CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Trussell LO, Jackson MB (1987) Dependence of an adenosine-activated potassium current on a GTP-binding protein in mammalian central neurons. J Neurosci 7(10):3306–3316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Belles B, Hescheler J, Trautwein W, Blomgren K, Karlsson JO (1988) A possible physiological role of the Ca-dependent protease calpain and its inhibitor calpastatin on the Ca current in guinea pig myocytes. Pflugers Arch 412(5):554–556CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Furukawa T, Yamane T-i, Terai T, Katayama Y, Hiraoka M (1996) Functional linkage of the cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ channel to the actin cytoskeleton. Pflugers Arch 431(4):504–512CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rosenmund C, Westbrook GL (1993) Rundown of N-methyl-D-aspartate channels during whole-cell recording in rat hippocampal neurons: role of Ca2+ and ATP. J Physiol 470:705–729CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Langton PD (1993) Calcium channel currents recorded from isolated myocytes of rat basilar artery are stretch sensitive. J Physiol 471:1–11CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuroscience DepartmentUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations