Image Pretreatment Tools II: Normalization Techniques for 2-DE and 2-D DIGE

  • Elisa RobottiEmail author
  • Emilio Marengo
  • Fabio Quasso
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1384)


Gel electrophoresis is usually applied to identify different protein expression profiles in biological samples (e.g., control vs. pathological, control vs. treated). Information about the effect to be investigated (a pathology, a drug, a ripening effect, etc.) is however generally confounded with experimental variability that is quite large in 2-DE and may arise from small variations in the sample preparation, reagents, sample loading, electrophoretic conditions, staining and image acquisition. Obtaining valid quantitative estimates of protein abundances in each map, before the differential analysis, is therefore fundamental to provide robust candidate biomarkers.

Normalization procedures are applied to reduce experimental noise and make the images comparable, improving the accuracy of differential analysis. Certainly, they may deeply influence the final results, and to this respect they have to be applied with care. Here, the most widespread normalization procedures are described both for what regards the applications to 2-DE and 2D Difference Gel-electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) maps.

Key words

Normalization Gel-electrophoresis 2-D DIGE 


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sciences and Technological InnovationUniversity of Piemonte OrientaleAlessandriaItaly

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