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The Principles of Freeze-Drying

  • Gerald D. J. Adams
  • Isobel Cook
  • Kevin R. WardEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1257)

Abstract

This chapter provides an up-to-date overview of freeze-drying (lyophilization) with particular relevance to stabilizing live cells or viruses for industrial applications as vaccines or seed culture. The chapter discusses the importance of formulation, cycle development, validation, and the need to satisfy pharmaceutical regulatory requirements necessary for the commercial exploitation of freeze-dried products.

Key words

Freeze-drying Lyophilization Lyoprotectants Secondary drying Sublimation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald D. J. Adams
  • Isobel Cook
    • 1
  • Kevin R. Ward
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Biopharma Technology LtdWinchesterUK

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