Freeze-Drying of Mammalian Sperm

  • Levent Keskintepe
  • Ali ErogluEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1257)


Long-term preservation of mammalian sperm at suprazero temperatures is desired to save storage and space costs as well as to facilitate transport of preserved samples. This can be accomplished by the freeze-drying of sperm samples. Although freeze-drying results in immotile and membrane-compromised sperm, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to introduce such an immotile sperm into an oocyte and thus start the fertilization process. So far, it has been shown that improved freeze-drying protocols preserve chromosomal integrity and oocyte-activating factor(s) at 4 °C for several years and at ambient temperature for approximately 1 month, which permits shipping freeze-dried samples at ambient temperature. This chapter concisely reviews freeze-drying of mammalian sperm first and then presents a simple freeze-drying protocol.

Key words

Sperm Spermatozoa Freezing Freeze-drying Cryopreservation Long-term storage Intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI Cryoprotectant Trehalose 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MedicineSher Institute for Reproductive Medicine and University of NevadaLas VegasUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine; Department of MedicineMedical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents UniversityAugustaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyMedical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents UniversityAugustaUSA

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